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Llandrindod, Cambria’s Montpelier! 
Llanwrtyd, .Builth, are pictured here; 
Health’s own spas, spread far.and near, 

Tliat Cymru’s land is ’oless’d with ; 
Rnthyn, Barmouth, Swansea fair, 

Sweet Tenby, with her ocean air! 

Lakes, alpine heights, vales, woodlands rare ; 
Llanstepban, Aberystwyth. 




1825 . 

Printed by J. H, Morgan, 
High Street, Abergavenny. 


A blessing on the man who first invented a pre- 
face ! — although descried by geniuses and quizzed 
by wits as an useless appendage to a book, we find 
them all incapable, in the end, of bringing forth 
their literary offspring without the especial aid 
and introductory assistance of the gentle preface. 
But Dame Preface, properly a peace-maker, 
proves sometimes a ineddling gossip, and go-be- 
tween the Author and Reader, forgetting her 
humble and circumscribed office, prates to a most 
unconscionable length so as to merit the odious 
designation of a BORE. With such I would have 
nothing to do, and much less with the rhythmical, 
epigrammic, and ironical preface of a friend of 
mine, who some years ago intended to enlighten 
the tcorld by loriting a volume of Satires on the 
vices of the age, but as the said world used hhn 
rather scurvily, he revenged hhnself on it, most 
amply, by witholding his precious lectures, no part 
of which were produced except the poetical preface 


in question, which I here present to the critical 
reader, infreating him to believe I was greatly 
shocked at the cool impudence and unorthodox fa~ 
miliarity of its profane author, who could so 
irreverently address the august guardians of taste, 
and generous defenders of public morals^ 


Addressed to the Revietoeri, 

Tour most obedient, Gents. Reviewers! 
While you’re civil, Sirs, I’m yours. 

But wear your damning' scowls 
To mar the Poet’s sale of goods, ^ 
Too much has he been used to woods 
To be now scared by Owls.” 

As this specimen of impertinence cannot be laid 
at my door, or be supposed to be spoken in my 
own proper person, it will be necessary to say 
something prefatory of my forthcoming work, so 
gentle reader," as Francis Moore, the Almanack 
Physician, says, take at once both its negative and 
positive qualities. 


It is not to be a dry chronicle of the medicinal 
merits of the various ivaters, nor a tedious com- 
pilation from stupid tours or antiquated books 
of topography. It will neither prove a factious 
declaimer on politics, nor a servile time-serving ve- 
hicle of adulation to the great. It shall not drug 
the public with the dull opiate of fatnily pedigrees, 
nor niggardly yield them “ a grain of wheat in a 
bushel of chuff but useful, interesting, amusing, 
and original matter, I trust, can, and will be abun- 
dantly found. For it should be remembered, we 
are now in the land of legends, mountains, and 
romance ! and that 

“ Cambria hath not a vale 
But appertains to it a tale ; 

Cambria hath not a hill 

But teems with themes of wonder still. 

Her mountains dun and rallies green 
Have been of marvels wild the seene, 

Her memorable feats belong 
To history and bardic song. 

Cambria — land of romanee ! 

The wizzard’s wand, the warrior’s lance. 

The minstrel’s harp, the druid’s oak. 

The broken gyve, the shatter’d yoke. 

The murder’d bard, the hero slain. 

To her, to her, well appertain ! 

And interest holds sweet command 
Still, still, o’er Cymrn’g mountain land.” 


Nobly, amid her land of lakes 
Wild Cadair Idris proudly breaks ; 

Pimlimon, * father of the floods! 

Divested of his native woods 

Frowns sternly yet ; and still more g^rand 

High Snowden, supreme of the mountain land. 

Oh who hath stood on Snowden’s side 
And glanced o’er Mona’s Island pride, ' 

O’er looking fatal Moel y don. 

But thought of those once there undone ? 

When the fierce invader’s foreign band 
Were crash’d by the sons of the mountain land. 

Nor should it he forgotton that this is the heroic 

“ Where battled the gallant Llewelyn 
And the fame of wild Merlin rung, 

Where counsell’d sage Catwg, most wise of men. 

And the young Taliesin sung.” 

Thus much premised, with the presumption that 
the Author and Reader understand each other, 
here ends the Preface. 

* The name of this mountain is often erroneously written 
Plimlimmon ; in welsh it is Fum Lumon, the Jive beacons, but 
pronounced Pimlimon, 



Introduction — 

The Celebrity of the Waters, 

The Work I am now commencing is not of a na- 
ture for an author to pique himself on the pride of 
composition, or a fastidious affectation of exclusive 
originality, to the rejection of well-known and valu- 
able matter contained in the various existing acouiits 
of the places that will be here treated oi ; and I 
candidly assure my readers that I shall avail myself 
of every information of interest, to be met with, 
duly acknowledging its source, in addition to my 
.own observations, and the oral communications of 
the talented and intelligent, wherever it may be my 
fortune to meet them. 

George Saville Carey, in his “Balnea, or Wa- 
tering PLACES OF England,” observes, “there 
are partial accounts given of every place that I have 
spoken of, but they have been written by some in- 
habitant on the spot, or some hireling, who for the 


Llandrindod Wells, 

sake of his interest, has been obliged to say some- 
thing handsome, should the situation be ever so ug- 
ly; and given the qualities of each place, like a fair 
piece of white paper, without a spot, and with one 
insipid sameness of perfection. Every one of the 
places in question has its beauties and defects; 
therefore, like a landscape, the best way is to give 
each its natural colouring, so that, where the defects 
are introduced in a dark or dingy ground, the beau- 
ties are always seen with a better effect, when they 
have been thrown judiciously by the painter, as 
a contrast, into some advantageous situation, and 
where the excellencies are heightened by compa- 

Proceeding on a similar principle of independence, 
adherence to facts, and general fidelity of descrip- 
tion, I hope, as I have two parties to please, — the 
Frequenters, and the Proprietors of Watering 
Places — that each will be liberal enough to acquit 
me of either an invidious preponderance or undue 
partiality, as censure or praise prevails in these 
well-meant pages, when the respective places come 
under consideration. Since Nature has thought pro- 
per to assign Aberystwyth a miserable harbour and 



a shore of pdibles, to contrast its numerous excel- 
lencies, I conceive a native, of that beautiful and 
ever-improving' town ought not to view with a jaun- 
diced eye the well-merited eulogies of “ fair com- 
mercial Swansea,” its capacious Italian-looking bay, 
and noble pier; or the delectable promenades on the 
sands of Tenby : nor should the natives of the latter 
places pretend to vie with Aberystwith for the gran- 
deur of her coast or the interesting historical associ- 
ations with Cardigan bay, and the adjacent country 
in the days of yore, Barmouth, Towyn, and other 
notable places, at present, less favored by the smiles 
ofFashion and the hand of Improvement, are equally 
worthy of attention to the votaries of Health, fre- 
quently more desirable to those whom Fortune has 
not blessed, as least governed on the predal system, 
under the iron reign of the harpy Extortion. Each, 
and all, have their merits and demerits ; thus much 
premised, Llandrindod Wells, the most popular 
and far-famed of the sp&s of Wales, must not ex- 
pect to be attired in a false dress, nor feel jealous of 
the more florid liveries, woodland beauties, and pe- 
culiar attractions of their immediate neighbours, the 
humbler rivalry of whose mineral waters still yield 


Llandrindod Wells, 

to Llandrindod, the palm of excellence in a high 

After naming the principal springs and wells of 
Wales, known in his day. Doctor Linden observes, 
“but as yet they must all submit, and veil their 
glories to the more shining perfections of the waters 
of Llandrindod, whose superior merit they cannot 
(at least as far as we know) pretend to approach in 
any considerable degree of vicinity.” The better 
part of a century has expired since the publication 
of this opinion, and were the Doctor still alive, pro- 
bably ' he could make but few exceptions to 
qualify his first decision. But here Nature has play- 
ed the miser, concealing cunningly her costliest 
treasures in the most ordinary and least suspected 
places ; a peculiarity that actually enhances the va- 
lue of these celebrated waters, as the seat of their 
solitude, by its still remoteness from the more gor- 
geous and tumultuous scenes, particularly accords 
with the mood and habit of the invalid. Were it 
not for the distant mountains that close the horizon, 
which, at the same time, are by no means either 
bold, elegant, or sublime, it would be difficult to 
conceive a spot more suti-cambrian ; partaking, 



however, of the general features of this country, — 
flat, yet slightly blessed with the charms of fertility, 
and rugged without the least pretension to a roman- 
tic character — that facinating charm ! which, like the 
spirit of poesy, adorns as a garland the wild fantas- 
tic peaks of desolate sterility; and compensates to 
the wandering enthusiast, for richer vales and scenes 
more fair. Yet here — on a dull common, a swampy 
moorland of uninviting aspect — the apparent realm 
of the “slothful Naiad of the fens” — eccentric and 
capricious in her choice, the goddess Health has 
fixed her unimposing throne. 

Her seat of sorereig’nty a heathy turf. 

Her courtiers, unseen spirits of the air, 

That poesy describes bright nymphs of cheer 
Rose-lipp’d Breezes, that the faded cheek 
Fan to rekindled ardour ; her treasury, 

Well sorted, cavern’d in tlie secret earth, 

The glories of the mineral kingdom ! 

And then the subjects of the goddess Health, 

The sous and daughters of the mountain land, 
Romantic, interesting, generous Cambria. 

No flower here invites the wanderer’s eye. 

But dark, repulsive, harsh and pleasureless. 

Sullen turbaries and weedy marshes 
Warn’d ofi" the uniuitiate and the vain, 

Till Wisdom’s eye did pierce the shrewd disguise; 


Llandrindod Wells, 

■■■ - . ■ ..V-a r 

Her handmaid Science came, with eag’le glance, 

AVhile Rumour told the wondrous tale to man. 

And then came Taste, who smiled upon the spot 
And deck’d with ornament the realm of Health.— 

A crowded multitude the desart then, 

Transform’d and animated, fill’d with voices ; 

While, terror-struck to hear the buz of men, 

Solitude fled hence forever. The sons 
Of smoky cities and their daughters wan. 

Of bloated aflluence, with fallen crest. 

Oppress’d with various maladies, came here. 

Drank, and were made whole ! the voice miraculoua 
That bade men live, take up their bed and walk. 

Did seem to live in these transcendant streams. 

To bless the world again : men came from far. 

Sad hopeless pilgrims to the fount of Health, 

Groaning, on crutches — but depart without— 

Seiz’d wild the vessel, drank and were made whole ! 
And all did bless Llandrindod. 

Thus “rude and rugged Radnor” has this one 
charm, that well compensates for Nature’s niggard- 
ness in other gifts, the possession of Llandrindod 

The pre-eminence of the salts produced from one 
of these Spas, the saline pump water, is particularly 
emphasised by the last-named author, in the follow- 
ing remarks, at the expence of the most celebrated 



Salts on the continent and in England; viz., the 
Sedlitz, and the Epsom Salts. “About the time 
when Hoffman discovered the Saline Spring at Sed- 
litz, Stahl wrote a treatise on the practice of physic, 
in X hich under the article De Plethora, he says. “The 
new method of purging is a very good one, that is, 
by drinking the English bitter Salts of Epsom ; but 
the Salts from the new-discovered Spring at Sedlitz 
are much superior to these, and the water itself far 
preferable to the Salts. Of the Epsom Salts, from 
an ounce to an ounce and half, dissolved in water is 
taken at once; but of the Sedlitz Salts, half the 
quantity is sufficient.” As Hoffman has proved by 
experiments the Sedlitz Salts to be preferable in 
goodness to those of Epsom, I have tried the Salts of 
the Llandrindod Waters in every shape and method, 
and will venture to affirm they excel those of Sedlitz, 
I cannot therefore but wish the Llandrindod Waters 
were introduced and prescribed in London. For 
though it would be m^re eligible to drink this, 
as well as other mineral waters at the Spring- 
head, where it is most efficacious, yet I am per- 
suaded it would answer many good purposes when 



Llandrindod Wells, 

exported; aud those patients whose business, or other 
circumstances would not permit their attendance on 
the spot, would not fail to receive considerable bene- 
fit, and find their account in drinking it at home.” 
The Doctor elsewhere observes, “the medicinal wa- 
ters have ushered themselves into vogfue by their 
own merit; no scribbling' has been attempted in 
their favor, which I am well assured would never 
have availed here ; for nothing but the extraordina- ’ 
ry merit of their mineral contents could ever have 
Tendered the place, from the condition it was in, fit 
for the reception of genteel company; their good ef- 
fects are so conspicuous, that theygive place to none in 
Europe; Ebeg pardon for the boldness of this ex- 
pression, but I beseech my readers to weigh it coolly, 
and to point out a water in Europe that can challenge 
the pre-eminence, and I will then give up the asser- 
tion ; but I declare I have seen, and made trial of, 
several medicinal mineral waters, in various parts of 
Europe, and have read of many more, that have been 
tried by more able hands, but as yet I have not met 
with any, of the same kind, tha surpass these at 
Llandrindod.” In the Gentleman’s Magazine for 
October, 1748, the following poetic etfusion on Llan- 




■ I 

drindod Wells, appeared; these lines, part of which 
are omitted, though possessing no great merit, al 
least evince the high estimation in which tb* 
waters were held in those days. 


Let England boast Bath’s crowded spriugi, 
Llandrindod happier Cambria sings, 

A greater, though a modern naiut, 

By merit rising into fame. 

Let chemists bid the furnace glow. 

Their panacea to bestow ; 

To sickness by the search betray’d. 

While art denies the promis’d aid. 

To nature’s hinder power I trust, 

To nature — ever kind and just! 

To her Llandrindod I repair, 

And find a panacea there. 

Blest Spring ! where pale disease may quafl 
New life, till spleen and vapours laugh, 

Till palsied nerves their tone resume, 

And age regain its faded bloom. 

Of half the pains th3t life endures. 

Sad source, o cold, this water cures 5 
No more to ilaus’ous drugs apply. 

Which make it worse to live than die. 

Ease first, then health these fountains give. 

And make it worth our while to live j 


Llandrindod Wells, 

The vein for mirth, the taste for food, 

Bj these continued or renewed. 

Three streams a different aid bestow. 

As sulphur, salts, and minerals flow, 

Uniting; all that med’ciae claims 
' And answering nature’s various aims, 

’Tis ask’d disdainful, “what can pleaM 
In such sequester’d wHds as these?” 

If russet heath or verdant vale 
Ormouutains that the skies assail. 

Whence pendant woods the steep o’crlook,i,«> 

And downward tremble in the brook, — 

If these can charm the wishful eye. 

All these Llandrindod can stipply. 

Would you the bounding steed bestride. 

Or drawn in chaise more idly ride, 

Ho smoother ground can Lansdown* yield. 

O’er all her spacious level field ; 

The river J guiltless sport affords, 

And trout and greyling leap your boards j 
The ladies’ fav’rite balls are here, 

Here sportsmen chase the fallow deer. 

And — 

But enough ! and as Hamlet says ** somewhat to# 
much of this.” The comparison with Lansdown 

# Hear Bath, 

J The river Ithoa, 



was as injudicious as the mention of “fallow deer,’* 
which only aids to recal the old adage. 

There’s neither a palace, nor park, or deer, 

Nor either a man in Radnorshire, 

That’s worth five hundred pounds a year. 

Except Sir William Fowler of Abbey Cwmhir. 

However, in the present day, there are some wealthy 
residents in the county, who have long removed .the 
•tigma, if it were one, respecting the possession of 
five hundred a year. 


Llandrindod is a small parish in the county of 
Radnor, South Wales ; its English name would be 
Trinity-Church. It is situated on a common which 
extends itself to three more parishes, and is within 
the Crown manor of Cantrev Melienydd ; this com- 
mon is about four miles in length, and rather more 
than half a mile broad. ' In that part which belongs 
to this parish stand the celebrated springs, four in 
cumber, the saline carbonated chalybeate, or rock 
VAterj the saline pump water; the sulphureous 


Llandrindod Well?, 

water, and the eye water. The latter has been no- 
ticed only by Mr. Richard Williams, Surgeon of 
Aberystwith, who in 1817 published a valuable 
treatise on the waters. The nearest market town to 
Llandrindod, is Builth, which is situated seven miles- 
to the south, a pleasant and romantic looking town 
on the banks of the Wye. It stands eight miles 
south east of Rhaiader, fifteen from new Radnor, 
and forty from Aberystwith, which fashionable bath- 
ing-place is the nearest sea-port town. Th« 
distances from other towns stand as follows: 


Knig-liton, Radnorshire 10 

Presteign, ditto 20 

Kington, Herefordshire 30 
'Newtown, Montgomerysh. 23 
Hay, Breconshire .... 26 
Llanwrtyd, by Newbridgel5 

Llandrindod church is situated 52. 17. north lati- 
tude, 3. 43. west longitude. It is a curacy, not in 
charge under the prebend, in the Cwmwd of Is- 
Mynwyd, Cantrev or kindred of Elvel, now called 
Cefn Llys, in the patronage of Middleton Jones Esq. 
of Pen-y-Bont. According to the Diocesan report 
in 1809, the yearly value of this benefice, arising 
Jfrom the augmentation and fixed stipend, was 

Brecon 22 

Hereford by Kington.. 38 

Worcester 53 

Shrewsbury 53- 

Birmingham 73- 



£35: Is. Theprebendof Llandrindod is valued in th« 
King’s books at £5: 8: 9, and is in the patronage of 
the Bishop of St. David’s. The parish contains 288*1 
statute acres of land, of which, in 1817, it was cal- 
culated that 1500 acres were inclosed, and 1384 not 
inclosed, but as cottages often start up in the com- 
mon, with their patches of garden land, and other 
enclosures occasionally take place, this point cannot 
be ascertained with much precision. The population 
is very limited; in 1801 it was computed at 192 per- 
sons; and in 1817 at ISO; 87 males and 93 females; 
on which calculation time has made very little dif- 
ference in the eight years which have since elapsed. 
From the commencement of the year 1800 to the 
close of 181G, there had been GO births, 37 males, 
and 29 females ; in which there occured 4G deaths; 
2G males and 20 females. In 1803, the money raised 
by the parish rates amounted to about £ 127 , at 
6s: 9d, in the pound. 

The land adjoining Uie upper, or eastern, end of 
Llandrindod common, is considerably planted, plea- 
sant in appearance, open, and gradually ascending. 
The soil or surface of the earth is a blackish brown, 
and a particular fatness strikes our attention; we find 


Llakdrindod Well^, 

-^■■-■=:r. ~a» 

it, on examination, to be plentifully mixed with a 
mineral bitumen, whence it may easily be rendered 
capable of producing all kinds of vegetables natural 
to this climate: but if the culture be afterwards 
neglected, a barren moss over-runs it, of which the 
land about Llandrindod, according to its treatment, 
gives evident proof. “ This mineral bitumen is cer- 
tainJy the effect of the coals that are contained in 
the mineral zonic of Llandrindod; and I doubt not 
in the least, but that beds of coal in this zonic may 
range a great way, and that they have their natural 
connection with other collieries in South Wales. 
The exhalations are of a salutary nature, and the 
vegetables produced endowed with good qualities, 
whence excellent cattle are reared here, while health 
and good natural strength are apparent in the na- 
tives of Llandrindod. This country produces excel- 
lent barley from which good ale is brewed, that is 
clear and transparent, agreeably bitter, and palata- 
ble. In short the malt liquor is an evidence of a 
healthy atmosphere, because it depends on the fer- 
mentation, upon which air, water and all the ele- 
ments have an influence, and to such a degree, that 
, if one of tb«m is amiss, the whole fermented product 



- ■ ■■,■■■.. . M it, 

suffers. Now as that is not the case here, but a fine, 
wholesome, well- fermented malt liquor is produced, 
we may safely conclude that every thing thereabout 
is endowed with salutary properties.” * A gradual 
rise of country completely encompasses the spacious 
plain of Llandrindod common. Towards the north 
east we are greeted with a striking contrast, as 
something like Cambrian scenery bursts upon us, 
when we look from the height towards Cefn Lly» 
Castle. The summits of the surrounding hills ara 
neither so steep or high as the generality of Welsh 
mountains, so that the air cannot stagnate, nor the 
plains be incessantly deluged with raiu, as is too 
frequently the case in many beautiful parts of the 
Principality ; because in this vicinity the mountains 
are not high enough to break the clouds as they 
ascend. “ 1 he air that ventilates this common is 
no where obstructed, but fans and re-fans from cor-i 
n'er to corner from any point it may happen to blow. 
The air is so healthy as to suit the most delicate 
constitutions ; for experience has confirmed and de- 
monstrated, that the most weakly and consumptive, 
revive and heroine strengthened in it. The moist 


v Dr, LiudeM. 


Ilandrindod Wells, 

II - - - 

«ea air is entirely out of the question, by reason of 
the great distance, as well as on account of it» 
height; for I reckon the lowest part of this common 
at least 150 feet, perpendicularly, higher than the 
sea at high water mark. Nevertheless, the air is 
neither too keen, nor too moist; for, as we havo 
before observed, the situation is sufficiently elevated, 
that no bogs or fens, nor any other moist exhaling 
vapour can affect it. Nor is it too hot or sultry, but 
of a mild temperature : in short, it is such an air as 
is required for sickly and declining constitutions^ 
and may justly be deemed the Montpelier of Great 
Britain.” * “As a further proof of the salubrity of 
the air, it may be stated, that in thirteen years, two 
years passed without a single funeral ; and during 
that period, the average number of annual deatlis 
did not amount to three.” § Antiquaries have not 
warranted the decision, whether Llandrindod wa» 
anciently a portion of the Roman Slluria, or of one 
of the other provinces. In the Welsh division it be- 


longed to Powis, and with the hundred of 'Builth, 
formed a part of North Wales; hut for a considera- 
ble period before, and after, the conquest, Builth, 

t Dr, Liudcn. 

^ Mr, Rickard WiliioMi. 


aull the lands between the Wye and -Severn formed 
an independent territory, possessed by Elystan Glod- 
ry'dd, an ancestor of the present Lord Dyuevor, and 
head of one of the five royal tribes of Wales. It 
was called the territory of Ferleg, until gradu- 
ally subdued by the Earls of March, from whom, 
in the reign of Henry the Sixth, it became vested 
in the Crown. Thus Llandrindod still gives the titU 
of Earl of March to the noble family of I.ennox. 


For yielding information on this subject, and 
guidance, to the places where the different object* 
stand, the Rev. Mr. Jones of Llanbongan, 
curate of Llandrindod, a venerable and intelligent 
old gentleman, is the most capable in the neigh- 

The most remarkable of the several ruins and 
ancient fortifications in the vicinity of Llandrindod, 
is the Great Camp at Cwm Radnor. Its Roman name 
is not known, but its Welsh one is Castell Collwyn, 
from the hazel-brake with which it is overgrown. 


Llandrindod Wells, 

It is a square enclosure, containing one hundred and 
twenty yards, surrounded by a wall of hammered, or 
rough hewn stone. The pretorium is very visible, 
and within it may be traced the remains of parti- 
tion walls. The camp is guarded on the west side 
by a double trench. It is situate upon an eminence 
on the west bank of the river Ithon, about a mile 
and a half from Llandrindod, and commands a fine 
view of the country. From this station appear the 
the remains of a Roman road towards Breconshire, 
It crosses a ford in the river Ithon, near Caebach, 
and takes a southerly direction over the common, 
through the fishpond at Llanerch-y-dirion, within a 
hundred yards of the Rock House Inn, in a direct 
line over the other commons towards the cultivated 
lands, and crosses the river Wye in the neighbour- 
hood of Llechrhyd Castle, about a mile and a half 
above the town of Builth. It is conjectured, on 
strong grounds, that Llechrhyd Castle is of Roman 
origin; the absence of any feature characteristic of 
British or Norman style, its contiguity to the Ro- 
man road, and inconsiderable distance from Cwm, 
speak well to that point. At irregular distances 
along the line of the Roman road aie many small 



camps, scattered over the common ; antiquaries con* 
jecture they were used as Campi cestivi ; but from 
their unequal disposition they could not have form- 
ed one military alignment, and must have been 
placed wherever it suited the convenience of the sol- 
diers who may have been employed here in making 
the road, or clearing the country ; and as they would 
have contained, had they been all occupied at once, 
at least two or three legions, it is probable that 
some were deserted, and new ones formed further on, 
according to the progress made by the workmen ; 
for they do not deviate much from the straight line, 
except for the purpose of gaining the high ground. 
It is supposed they continued for several miles, but 
have been demolished by the cultivation of the coun- 
try and the growth of trees, as the road itself has 
disappeared. These Camps are eighteen in number, 
and extend nearly two miles : some are not more 
than sixteen paces distant, and others three or four 
hundred. Each camp or station is square, with ob- 
tuse angles, and generally from twenty to thirty 
} ards within the agger, with four entrances, one on 
each side, and opposite to each entrance is a mound; 

the agger is five or six yards thick, formed of earth 



Llandrindod Wells, 

intermixed with stone occasionally, but nothing like 
a wall : surrounded by a small trench, from which 
it was thrown up, except at the entrances, where 
both are discontinued. So low is it in all of them, 
that the most perfect is not above two feet high, and 
some are so obscured by time that they may be 
walked over without being even seen. 

Cefn Llys, * or the Court-house hill, is the re- 
mains of a British fortress, strongly fortified by 
nature, being nearly surrounded by the river Ithon, 
on the lofty banks of which it stands. Its demoli- 
tion has been so complete, that nothing beyond its 
mere site is distinguishable. It is mentioned by 
Camden as in ruins, when he wrote, about the year 
1585. On the north side it lies open to a large and 
dreary common. This castle, > together with the 
lordship of Melienydd, was once the property of the 
Mortimers, Earls of March, having been erected by 
an ancestor of that family; and with the exception 
of occasional interruptions by the Welsh Princes, 
and attainder for rebellion, it continued in their pos- 
session till the time of Henry the Sixth, when 

♦ The Eng'lish reader, to wlioin Welsh pronunciation is difficult, 

Miaj call it Keven Leece^ the nearest sound to the original. 



Edmund, the last Mortimer, Earl of March, died. It 
then devolved to his brother in law, Richard, Earl 
of Cambridge, and upon his attainder, Irecame 
again vested in the Crown. 

There are two druidical stones upon the common, 
at some distance from each other, and several tumuli, 
jfive of which are placed close together, these have 
been opened, and were found to contain human 
bones, and pieces of half burnt charcoal, covered 
with a heap of loose stones. Pennant, in his tour 
through Wales, observes, “the custom of consuming 
the bodies of the deceased by fire, and preserving 
the ashes in an urn, is one of very ancient date. 
It was in use with the polushed nations, with the 
G reeks & Romans, as well as the most barbarous. The 
ancient Germans practiced this rite, as appears from 
Tacitus. The Druids observed the same, with the 
wild addition of burying with the body whatsoever 
was of use in this life, under the notion that they 
would be wanted in themext; and in confirmation of 
this, arms, and many singular things of unknown 
use, are to this day discovered beneath the places of 
amcient sepulture.’’ 


Llandrindod Wells, 

The foundations of a very ancient church or cha- 
pel, called Llanfaelon, some years ago were dug up 
in the middle of a corn-field at Llandrindod; but be- 
yond the name no account of it remains. 

A silver thumb ring, some years ago, was dug up 
in a place called the Castle Garden. It is conjectur- 
ed to have been the signet ring of one of the Welsh 
Princes who resided at Cefn Llys ; it bore an im- 
pression resembling an hour-glass, on either side an 
olive-branch, gracefully pending, and nearly meet- 
ing at the top, the whole encompassed at the edge 
with a kind of chain border. Without pretending 
to divine, its original meaning, I conceive it admira- 
bly formed to character the simple sentence of 
“ peaceful hours.” It is now in the possession of 
Mrs. Edwards of Greenfields, a lady to whom Llan- 
drindod owes much of its present revived celebrity. 

To the east, above Llandrindod church, is a very 
ancient lead mine, which has been worked as late as 
the year 1797 , but is now deserted, though it is 
probable that the ore is by no means exhausted. It 
is supposed the works were suspended in conse- 
quence of a gush of water, Tor an attempt had been 
made to carry a level under them. ** The galena^ o» 


wilphuret of lead,” Mr. Richard Williams' reraarksy 
*‘may be frequently met with, interspersed with 
calcarious spar.” 

Immediatety adjoining Llandrindod chuYch, sur-' 
rounded by a grove of sycamore, stands a farm- 
house retaining the designation of Llandrindod H'all^ 
a name once appertainiog to the grand hotel and 
splendid establishment of Mr. Grosvenor; long the 
admiration and wonder of this country. The preserit 
tenement, though a spacious fami-hoaSe, was mere-- 
ly the size of one of the dining rooms, on the site of 
which it stands, the only remaining^ vestige of itS' 
existence ; a circumstance to be attributed to its^ 
having been built principally of wood.- 


The acknowledged resemblance to Switzerland,, soj 
often alluded to by thpadrairers-of Wales, though Very’ 
flattering th our raflity, is no less juSt, and thtt fol-- 
lowing paralled drawn' by Dr. Linden, author*' o£> 
the first treatise' on* tlandrindotP Waters-,, thitraghi* 
quaintly written; seth the’ poinf in’’a dearView^ 
all. the oatiuna- of Europe,, non^' havo lfeeti* 


Llandrindod Wells, 

diligeut and careful than the Switzers, in examine 
ing the nature and properties of the several waters, 
that issue, in great plenty, and ooze out of the hills, 
xocks, and mountains of their country. This 
laborious & indefatigable people seem to have enter- 
tained a just sense of those incessant floods of boun- 
ty, with which kind Providence has blessed their 
land, and have therefore employed all their study, 
and -extended their utmost efforts to make the best 
advantages of Nature’s favours, by rendering the 
genuine productions of their country subservient to 
the health and interest of the inhabitants. 

Dr. Scheuchzer has given us a copious description ' 
♦of the nature & qualities of the Swiss Water, grouud- 
■ed on facts, and drawn from experience, in two large 
Toluraes quarto, in which he has been so accurate 
;and particular, that hardly one spring has escaped 
his notice. 

If a Man Tvere Inclinable to draw parallels be- 
tween distant countries, =on the various parts of ithis 
<our lEarfh, I know of no .two that bear a more .«tti- 
Icing llikeness 'to each ^otber ithan ^Switzerland .and 
Wales. The ^external superfices 4of both, cqunti^ 



^re rugged, strong and cragged, loaded with rocky 
hills, and mountains of vast extent and altitude. 
These Welsh mountains (as it were in allusion to 
the Swiss), are termed the British Alps : and exhibit 
a further resemblance of the Alps in Switzerland, in 
that they are cloathedwith similar kinds of herbage; 
produce plants and vegetables of the same nature, 
and nurture and raise them to a like degree of 
virtue and perfection. As therefore these circum- 
stances could hardly exist, without a remarkable 
•similitude between the soil, air, and atmosphere, 
of the two countries, may we not by a parity of 
reasoning conclude, that the springs and fountains 
of Wales have some degree of affinity one to an- 
other ! Nature seems to have indicated, by the near 
resemblance of the outward aspects of these two Coun- 
tries, in all their various wildness of dress & asperity 
•of surface, that there is a proportional agreement in 
their internal parts-; that their wombs are pregnant 
"with the like bidden treasures.; and that the same 
rich juices & saluta^ fluids are -copiously ciroulated 
4luougii -.the ^eins mf both. iHenoe .it cwiM be ;n» 
•wonder, iif, in process of lime, ^rings ^of severaS 
ikinds of .water .shall .eme^e into oase amd.rejmte an 

Llandrindod Welis^ ' 

Wales oi- the like nature, and endowed with the same- 
qualities with those already known aud celebrated 
io Switzerland”. Had the Doctor beeiv better ac- 
quainted with the history and genius of this people, 
he might have extended his comparison, as the 
Welsh bear the strongest resemblance tO' the Swiss 
for a blameless simplicity of character, an- ardent 
and passionate love of their native country, heart- 
moving poetry in its praise, and a devoted and in- 
vincible courage in defending it ; as the numerous 
records- of the “olden day” beautifully, but often 
fatally evUice : not an age has passed during the 
prevalence of foreign invasions and neighbouring 
aggressions-, but M ales-has produced l>er heroes and 
defenders.. Piety found here her truest votaries, and 
Libertyhermost virtuous champions; in weal and woe, 
success and failure, Wales was ever rich in tri- 
umphant chieftains, or. generous martyrs of unavail- 
ing patriotismi. 

The- anticipations of Dr. Linden respecting the 
discovery and appreciation of mineral springs im 
this country, have been amply fulHired and justified;; 
amdindfeed'a'kind'of rage fiir such discoveries Rasbe-- 
wmemamfesti, furnrshii^a reraarkahlfe’ contrast to> 



the apathy of former years, which do not even record 
a date of the first discovery of Llandrindod Wells : 
for in 1755, this author observes, “How long these 
waters, through their own merit have been in repute 
and medical use cannot be ascertained, for all the 
inquiry I could make amount* to this, that they 
have been used time immemorial”. It seems from 
the same authority that about the year 1696, the 
Vaughans, a considerable family in Herefordshire, 
frequented these wells, stayed some weeks and used 
the waters with satisfaction ; but in wHat manner, or 
for what disorders, there is not the least account 
given ; and that “at all times in the summer season 
there has been a resort of the common people in 
great troops, who made use of these watere on all 
occasions; the success attending this vulgar use has 
not only continued the annual pilgrimage to the 
fountain of health, but has greatly encreased it”. 
Genteel company did not visit here till about the 
year 1735, which in cqpsequence of the discovered 
merits of the spas in numerous cure*, increased 
yearly, to an amazing number, so as to need an in- 
crease of the houses of accommodation, which were 
then, it may be presumed, but few, and incapable of 


Llandrindod Wflls, 

affording the entertainment requisite for the opulent 
and fashionable, or of even sheltering such an ever- 
multiplying concourse; many were therefore obliged 
to depart on the day of their arrival, unblessed by 
the aid of Hygeia’s stream, or bespeak the first 
vacancy of a lodging, and return again. In the year 
1749, an enterprizing individual, a Mr. William 
Grosvenor of Shrewsbury, with a taste and spirit 
that does honor to his memory, and has forever 
associated his name with these waters, commenced 
wdiat may be called his princely undertaking, which 
he soon accomplished on a most liberal scale. 
are told he “took leases of several hoases, and not 
only repaired and fitted them up at a vast expense, 
but caused, additional buildings to be erected, es- 
pecially one, which was spacious enough to contain 
several hundreds of visitors, in which he was as- 
sisted by his brother-in-law, Mr. Ingol : here wer* 
then accommodations for the invalid, of whatever rank, 
and distinction, field amusements for the healthy, 
while balls, billiards, and regular assemblies, varied 
the pastimes of the gay and fashionable. The 
grounds were not only ornamented in a style of elci. 
gauce, but ou them were discemable the finished 



suggestions of the most polished taste. There were 
fishponds, always well stocked, and what may now 
appear incredible, swans of varied plumes gracing 
their surface. The remains of three of those ponds 
are yet to be seen. Another source of amusement 
here was a cockpit, where frequent cockfights took 
place. Regular race grounds were cleared and level- 
led, to the great delight of the votaries of the turf, 
by whom they were in frequent requisition. Their 
remains are still traceable on the hills. The ut- 
most regularity and systematic management prevail- 
ed in the interior of the house ; so that punctual 
attendances, elegant entertainment, and a succession 
of varied amusements gave this place the winning 
charm of irresistible fascination. Like a metropo- 
litan hotel, it had attached to it both neat and hand- 
some shops for milliners, glovers, hair dressers, and 
all descriptions of persons likely to be useful to the 
visitors. In short, Llandrindod Hall bore some re- 
semblance to a market tow^. The country people, 
far and near, from the surrounding neighbourhood, 
to a considerable distance, flocked hither daily, and 
ever found a ready market for their various com- 
modities. In the warmth of his heart Dr. Lindea 


Llandrindod Wells, 

exclaims, “if ever a projector deserved to be immor- 
talized it is Mr. William Grosvenor, for his merit 
iu bringing this place to such perfection as a recep- 
tacle for the sick; in my opinion a statue ought to be 
erected to his memory : he still goes on with the most 
expensive improvements, and provides this place 
with every thing that can be desired or thought of”. 

The saline water was in medical use, as before 
observed, about the year 1696; it afterwards, as it 


could not be employed for domestic purposes, lay 
quite unnoticed and nearly forgotten, until 1736, 
when accident revived its dormant celebrity. Mrs. 
Jenkins, the tenant’s wife, who previous to Dr. Lin- 
den’s time was known as a kind of country doctress, 
anddlrectress of all the medical spas at Llandrindod, 
perceived one evening a light proceeding from the 
inflammable vapours playing round the spot, and be- 
ing a superstitious woman, she was induced to 
make a search, in hopes of finding a treasure; but 
was much disappointed on discovering nothing but 
a saline spring, a treasure which ultimately proved 
of inestimable value, but at first little thought of. 
However its virtues becoming more generally known, 
it turned out the immediate means of raisinsr to 



comparative affluence both herself, her family and 
successors. Mrs. Whitall, the late tenant’s wife, is 
a great grand-daughter of Mrs. Jenkins. The sul- 
phureous spring, also owes its discovery to Mrs. 
Jenkins. Her daughter had been afflicted about 
five years with an ulcerated head, brought on by a 
fever. Observing that the neighbouring sulphureous 
water cured similar complaints, she caused a search 
to be made nearer home. Her endeavours were re- 
quited with the discovery, and the discovery with 
the success she sought, for she not only cured her 
own child, but did a great deal of good to others. 

The eye water, or Fynon cwm y gov, (the well 
of the blacksmith’s dingle) obtained its name and 
was brought into notice by a blacksmith, who was 
accidentally cured of an ophthalmia, by washing his 
eyes with the water ; “the eye water”, observes Mr. 
Richard Williams, “differs considerable from the 
others, in containing sulphuric acid in a combined 
state.” . 

In August 1754, Dr. Diederick WesSe Linden, a 
Tcry eminent and popular German physician, 



Llandrindod Wells, 

arrived at Llandrindod. He was well known in the 
world of science as an author, and had visited all the 
principal medicinal mineral springs in Europe. He 
went to Llandrindod, “invited thither by the fame 
of these waters, in order to reap the benefits of those 
good qualities and medicinal virtues with which re- 
port had, (and as he afterwards found, so deservedly) 
furnished them”. At that time he was afflicted 
with an inveterate scurvy ; the complaint bad fallen 
into his hands, where it broke out, and ulcerated in a 
very painful and troublesome degree; he had like- 
wise suffered by noxious mineral damps, contracted 
by analysing minerals. After a previous examina- 
tion of the waters he says “ the result of this scru- 
tiny was, that I chose the saline pump water for 
my remedy; I had not drank it quite four weeks, 
when, I thank God, I found my disorder cured, to 
my own unspeakable comfort, and the great sur- 
prise of all my friends and acquaintance. During 
my stay at the wells, I had the pleasure likwise of 
witnessing their good effects on several others, parti- 
cularly on one patient, l.'.bouring under a total weak- 
ness proceeding from a variety of disorders, liy 
the use of the rock water he recovered to an amazing 



degree of strength and vigour. Another scorbutic 
patient I had the pleasure to see recover from an 
inveterate and tedious distemper, to a surprising 
degree of health, by drinking the saline pump water 
for about the same space of time as I drank it my- 
self. A third, who had long been violently afflicted 
with an arthritio disorder, that had taken its seat in 
the stomach, was perfectly relieved by the use of 
the sulphur water”. 

As a grateful return for so great a blessing as the 
restoration of his health, and to make the healing 
properties of the waters more extensively useful* 
and more generally known, he commenced his 
analysis of them, which was publised in 1750, under 
the title of A treatise on the three medicinal mine- 
ral waters of Llandrindod, in Radnorshire, with some 
remarks on mineral and fossil mixtures in their 
native beds and veins, at least as far .as respects 

their inflaence on water. 

Multutn diuqiie desideratum.” 

This work is as honorable to his heart, as 
creditable to his talent ; and throughout its pages 
unites the accuracy and acuteness of the philosopher, 
with the generous benevolence of the philanthropist. 
Although so many years have elapsed since its pub- 


Llandrindod Wells, 

lication, the opinions of the Tistors to these spas are 
decidedly in its favour. The many extracts from 
this work which will here meet the reader’s eye, re- 
quires therefore, no apology : and I conceive it no 
invaluable duty discharged to the public, to bring 
their old favorite, though in new attire, once more 
before them, who deserves a better fate than, from 
the scarcity of the book, the oblivion which seemed 
ready to engulph him. 

The liberality of Dr. Linden’s character is striking* 
ly pourtrayed in the following picture of aPhysician^. 
a picture, beautifully drawn, and although by the 
hand of a foreigner, deserving a permanent stand in 
English literature, which many of the faculty in our 
own country would do well to study ; though others 
may see in it but a portrait of themselves. 

Let no one think that this is to lead the patient into on- 
necessary expenses, which may have been sufficiently enhanced 
already ny sickness, the journey, and other preparations ; since, 
according’ to my notion of a true Physician, one who is capable 
of acting up to the dignity of his character, ho ought to be 
endowed with all imaginable tenderness, with a certain gene* 
rosity and nobleness of soul, that will carry him above mean 
actions. He ought to be so compassionate, as to have a fellow 
feeling, and participate in every affliction his patient is troubled 
with. Such a sense will extort advice, and oblige him to give 
his counsel gratis, to every indigent complainant. He will even 
•eek occasion to oblige those who have a spirit to appear genteel 
in narrow circumstances. It will afford him a greater pleasure 
to refuse his fees from such, than to receive them from the most 
opulent ; and the same generous and humane disposition wiU 
make him conceal the objects of his generosity.’' 



A participation in the afflictions of patients here 
recommended and especial tenderness towards the 
fair sex are well illustrated in Dr. L.’s own remarks 
throughout his treatise; but the following extract 
from it, places this amiable foreigner, whose name 
deserves ever to be associated with Llandrindod 
Wells, in the best point of view. 

“The hysteric passion is a protens-like disease, end includes 
e larg'e train of symtoms, yet is a disorder too much slig'hted, and 
often ridiculed by those who cannot account for its perplexing 
symptoms. The poor sufferer is frequently deemed whimsical, 
fantastical, and often censured with the opprobrious appellation 
of ill-natured. It were to be wished it was so, and that the 
paroxisms depended upon her will and temper; but the case 
stands far otherwise, I have often been surprised that any one 
can behold these amiable being^s, this lovely and most desirable 
part of the creation, tortured, racked, convulsed, and almost 
ag-onieeil, and not be struck with terror and compassion : such 
certainly must he divested of all humanity. The disease is a 
real one, and the objeets merit our utmost efforts to relieve them 
aud subdue their foe.” 

Mr. Grosvenor’s establishment continued long in 
a very flourishing state, and attained, to the fullest 
extent, the patronage and popularity it so well 
merited, when the American war broke out, and 
the subsequent hostilities with France drained the 
country of a great portion of the young and gay, 
Llandrindod gradually declined, and at length be- 
came almost deserted. That it should so long have 
remained dormant is partly to be attributed to a 


l>LA'1Nl)R?N'BOD WeLLS, 

snew sprung' taste, or fashion, for visrting the -coasts, 
and a favourable opinion entestaiaed by tire public 
of -the officacy of sea bathing. The experience of 
.■mankind, however, has at length convinced tbeaa of 
the fatal effects on the consumptive and .delkate of 
.habit, produced by the harshness of the seaair; and of 
late years Llandrindod has again become aplace-of te- 
.fuge,'Comfort, and recovery, to the invalid. Under new 
auspices Improvement makes rapid strides towards 
its former celebrity for .elegant accommodations and 
fashionable attendance. Llandrindod Hall -was open 
for the reception of visitors as late as the year 1787; 
and it Is within the memory of many elderly persons 
of the present day, that when the Flintshire militia 
were once on their march, they halted one evening 
at Builth, when that town was rather smaller than il 
now is, and were greatly disappointed on learning 
its incapacity to afford lodgings for so large a num- 
ber. Consequently they marched on to Llandrindod 
where they immediately found the accommodation 
they soifght, for five hundred men, it is said, be- 
sides women and children, in Llandrindod Hall alone: 
but that number is doubtless much over-rated. The 
site of this mansion is adjoining the parish Church, 



:ou pleasant grounds above LlandiindodCommon,naark- 
f^d by several large syca*nores, and between them a 
farmhouse, retaining the designation of Llandrindod 
JHah, although the whole tenement is but a super- 
•etrocture on one of the.dining parlours. TheoMiging 
mistress of this farm will point to the inquiring 
stranger the various parts on the ac^oining green, 
once occupied by parlours, billard, dancings and 
•sitting, rooms ; the bar, the cellar in the rock, .and 
the kitchen. On its demolishment and i-emoval of 
the remaining materials, she will tell him of no 4css 
■than a score and a half of fire-gr^es, which she saw 
taken down then ; and shew the exact places where 
stood the shops of the glover, the hair-^dresser, and 
the milliners ; interspersed with many amusing anec- 
dotes, and sighs for the days gone by, with all their 
interesting association on that spot. 

Dr. Linden’s treatise, purchased with avidity, 
became scarce, and remained long out of print ; one 
known copy only remaining, in the possession of :tbe 
late tenant in the pump-house.; thus a field was ppen- 
ed to speculation in. a new work, which became .a 
•great desideratum. Accordingly, in 181.7 Richard 
■Williams Esq, an eminent medical practitioner jA 


Llandrindod Vells, 

Aberystwith, popular in his profession, and well 
known as a pupil to Sir Astley Cooper, published a 
work under the following title. “An Analysis of tha 
medicinal waters of Llandrindod, in Radnorshire, 
South Wales ; with observations on the diseases to 
which they are applicable, and directions for their 
use. To which is prefixed a topographical account 
of the place. By Richard Williams, Surgeon, Hono- 
rary Member of the Physical Society of Guy’s 
Hospital, London. 

“Scire potestates Aquarura, usumque libendi.” 


This work was published by subscription and de- 
dicated to the late Princess Charlotte of Wales ; well ' 
received by the public, and possessed every claim to 
their attention, with this especial advantage over its 
predecessor, the combined scientific attainments of 
the present enlightened age, from the great revolu- 
tion, improvements, and discoveries in modern 
chymistry ; which has enabled Mr. Williams to ren- 
der us a very perfect and complete analysis. Being 
favoured with that gentleman’s permission to reprint 
his work, at present scarce, 1 thankfully avail 



myself of his politeness, gratified at being fortunata 
enough to present the public with matter, already 
so well received by all to whom its merits wera 
known. Thus will they have at once before them, 
the only two accounts of Llandrindod Wells ever 
published, with all such additional information that 
time, improvement, and research, can claim for re- 
cord, in the present work, “ fashioned to the 
varying hour.” Mr. Williams observes, about the 
year 1769, Dr. Berkenhout, in his “ Outlines of 
Great Britain and Ireland.” and Dr. Donald Monro 
in his “Essay on Mineral Waters,” 1770, have very 
briefly made some remarks on the analysis of 
Dr. Linden ; but from my enquiries, his appears to 
have been the only original work which has 
hitherto been published on the Llandrindod Waters.” 

As Wales has been considerably benefited by 
adopting the suggestions of Dr. Linden in mineral- 
ogy, as well as by his analysis, we owe it to his 
fame, which every principk of justice and generosity 
compels us to protect, and without pretence to the 
character of his biographer to give an additional 
notice of him here. His letter to the Earl of Halifax 
on the Chevron, or Bru Waters, published in the 


Llandrindod Wells, 

Gentleman’s Magazine for December 1751, proves 
his intimacy with that nobleman, while the numerous 
names of the nobility and gentry, who were sub- 
scribers to his work, evince their patronage, and the 
estimation in which he was held in England, .who, 
to her credit be it said, has not added him to the 
ample list of the neglected sons of science and 
genius. He wrote English very fairly for a foreigner; 
always cor»prehensive, without affecting the abstruse 
and technical phraseology of science more than ne- 
cessary. The occasional coarseness of expression, 
bordering upon indelicacy, to be sometimes found in 
his work on Llandrindod, is to be excused on that 
score, and from the want of a more perfect acquaint- 
ance with the idioms of our language, which in his 
day had not acquired the polish which distinguishes 
our own era. His pages are illustrated generally 
with quotations from Stahl, Hoffman, and the roost 
.esteemed of the medical writers of Germany. We 
are indeiipt:ed to him for introducing the means 
rendering the Welsh lead malleable, and fit for ali 
ithe purposes of the plumber, which, previous to his 
time, had been rejected by the London refiners, ou 
lacco.unt ,of its brittleness, and therefore found useful 



only to be exported in large quantities to China, 
where it was held in the highest estimation, 
and wrought into those fine & thin plates with which 
tea chests are lined. He recommended the following 
method of rendering the Welsh lead equal to any 
other. “Take of tallow, one pound; bees-wax, half 
a pound ; small wood charcoal, (such as is sold in 
Loudon to kindle fires) finely powdered, one pound. 
Melt the tallow and wax on the fire, then add by 
degrees the charcoal, keeping the mass continually 
agitated till cold, ami reposit for use. Of this mix- 
ture take about two or three ounces, and rub the 
inside of the iron vessel in which you intend to fuse 
your lead, on the top of which, when in the state of 
fusion, throw inabout thesame quantity. Thisgreasy 
unctions substance will extend itself over all the 
surface of the melted metal ; the plumbers by this 
method will be recompensed for their labours; none 
of the lead will exhale in white fumes, a circum- 
stance which not only caups a consumption of the 
metal, but also greatly impairs the health of the la- 
bourers ; nor is the expense large, for six ounces of 
the above will suffice for four or five hundred weight 
of luftal.” * 

• Gentleman’s Magazine, 1752. 


Llandrindod Wells, 

The Doctor’s other publications are “ Letters on 
the knowledge and improvement of Mining, 2s. 
Keith, Feb. 1753. Three letters on Mining and 
Smelting, inscribed to the Riglit Hon. the Earl of 
Halifax, Is. fid. Aug. 1750. An experimental dis- 
sertation on the nature, contents, and virtues, of the 
Hyde Saline purgingwater, commonly called the Hyde 
Spa, near Cheltenham, in Gloucestershire, London, 
1751. A treatise on the origin, nature, and virtues, of 
Chalybeate Waters, natural Hot Baths, Mineral Wa- 
ters of England and Germany.” 

In consequence of the improvements in the sci- 
ence of Chymistry a more modern analysis will of 
course be preferable to Dr. Linden’s, but his labori- 
ous researches, and almost enthusiastic partiality 
towards Llandrindod "Wells, for their experienced 
virtues, and his cautious professional advice on the 
numerous cases in which their remedy is efficacious, 
has endeared his memory to the invalid, and given 
his treatise a lasting hold of public estimation. 
This meagre history may now be said to be brought 
down to the present year, 1825; a few weeks previ- 
ous to the season of which, the late tenant Mr. 
Whitall left the Pump-house, which had been kept 



by a succession of his wife’s ancestors about two 
centuries, both as a farm and house of entertainment 
for the visitors, in which he was succeeded by Mr. 

AND lodging houses. 

Llandrindod, as before observed, has now for some 
yeai-s been gradually emerging from the obscurity 
it had fallen into since the American war, and the 
decline of Mr. Grosvenor’s establishment ; the celeb- 
rity of which, for comfort, attendance, and general 
accommodation, if not in capaciousness and extent, 
will assuredly be soon rivalled by the Pump House. 

The principal lodging and boarding house here is 
called the Pump House ; it stands on the upper end 
of Llandrindod common, surrounded with pleasure 
walks, and embosomed in a little grove, about a 
quarter of a mile from the site of Llandrindod Hall, 
and by the peculiarity of its situation is better shel- 
tered than Mr. Grosvenor’s house could ever possi- 
bly have been, 




Llandrindod Wells, 

Thus, by its convenient situation, the boarders at 
this house are but about forty yards from the saline 
spa, as many more from the sulphureous spring, and 
about a quarter of a mile from the Rock house, so 
called from the rock or chalybeate water by which 
it stands; while the church is within the pleasant 
walk of a quarter of a mile. Were it my task to 
describe this place a twelve-month hence, the sum- 
mer of 1826 , a better field would present itself, but 
at present I can only do so by anticipation, in which 
I fear I can scarcely do justice to the liberality and 
taste which actuates the proprietor, Middleton Jones 
Esq., and the judicious management of the new 
tenant Mr. Owen in their embryo plans of improve- 
ment. The rooms in the Pump-house are capacious 
and lofty, and throughout all, from the well carpeted 
and decorated parlours to the airy Bed-chambers, 
both comfortably and genteelly furnished. The beds 
and their hangings, no inconsiderable items on the 
list of real comforts, are highly creditable to Mrs. 
Owen and her daughters, and claim unqualified 
praise. In addition to two large parlours, the house 
contains seven bedrooms, but including all, in dif- 
ferent, parts of this establishment here are nearly 



thirty beds. Attached to the house are g-ood coach-, 
houses and stables, where a carriage and an excellent 
stud of ponies will be kept for the accommodatioa 
of the public. A new assemb^ room on an exten- 
sive scale, and a billiard room will be speedily built; 
while numerous plantations, new walks, with seats 
and bowers, will form part of the forth-coming inno- 
vating arrangements, to take place within a year. 
We anxiously hope these spirited additions and im- 
provements will be met by the public with the 
countenance and patronage they deserve, and pro- 
long their stay here beyond the usual termination of 
the season. 

The Rock-house Inn, near which stands the 
chalybeate spa, a neat and pleasant looking board- 
ing house, is kept by Mr. Smith. It is situated on 
the side of a romantic little dell, the sloping side of 
it is laid out as a garden, in which are pleasant but 
confined walks. On the opposite side of the dell 
rises a neat plantation of young trees, which pro- 
mise at a future time to yield both shade, shelter, 
and ornament to this agreeable spot, from which 
we have a very pleasing glimpse of the river Ithon, 
winding its devious course. About a hundred yards 


Llandrindod Wells, 

hence the Roman road may be traced over the com- 
mon in a direction towards Builth. The accommoda- 
tions here are creditable and the attendance good ! 
and punctual. The house contains two parlours, or 
as they otherwise distinguish them, a dining parlour 
and a withdrawing room for the ladies ; with com- 
modious and lofty bed-rooms. This is the only 
boarding-house at Llandrindod built entirely of stone. 
The others, as well ^ the neighbouring farm houses 
are principairy formed of wood, as indeed was Mr. 
Grosvener’s once celebrated establishment. I have 
often wondered at the custom of erecting houses of. 
wood, so prevalent at Llandrindod, Rhaiader, and 
many parts of Radnorshire, a county, whatever may 
be its other deficiencies, ' abounding at least with 
stone ; but it seems, bare as the country now ap- 
pears, timber was once actually an incumbrance 
here, as in the memory of many old persons large 
woods have been cut down, and, unfortunately for 
the benefit and appearance of the country, without 
the precaution of re-planting. Thus, from a lack of 
public spirit among the land proprietors, strangers 
“ spy out the nakedness of the land.” 



The Llanerch orLlanerch-y-dirion Inn, stands on a 
flat part of the common, occupying a central situa~ 
tion between the Rock-house and the Pump-house ; 
from the former it is about three hundred yards, and 
from the latter something more. It is a neat and 
comfortable boarding house, kept by Mr. Betts, 
whose obliging conduct and general assiduity, with 
that of his wife and daughter, has secured him a 
large portion of the public patronage. This house 
contains two parlours, and many good bed cham- 
bers, where they make up no less than twelve beds. 
In addition to these three boarding houses, all the 
I neighbouring farms become lodging houses in the 
I visiting season, and generally yield good attention, 

I and comfortable beds ; where those who prefer pri- 
vate lodgings and to board themselves, may be ac- 
commodated. The names of the principal of these 
farms are as follow ; Llanvawr, The Gorse, Noyadd, 

' T revonel, Caebach, Dolberthog, and Llandrindod 
1 Farm, which stands on the site of one of the 
parlours of Llandrindod Hall. 

Towards the southern end of Llandrindod common, 
in the adjoining parish of Dysserth, about two miles 
' from the Pump-house, is ^ small village called 


Llandrindod Wells, 

Howey, from the stream that parts the parishes, 
over which is a bridge. There is a public-house 
here, called the Bridge End Inn, kept by a black- 
smith, named Price, where beds are to be had, and I 
believe, decent accommodation on an emergency. 
There are a few small shops here also. All these 
houses with the exception of one or two, were built 
by this blacksmith, to whom great credit is due for 
his spirit. He has added much to the pleasantness 
of the spot by a small plantation, which corresponds 
well with the neighbouring groves planted by the 
late James Crummer Esq. whose house is near, al- 
most hidden by the trees, and inhabited by his 
widow. Connected with this place Mr. Williams 
has the following remarks. “Several springs have 
been observed in the yard of the Rock-house, of a 
similar nature to those in use ; and about three 
years ago (1814) in sinking a pump at Howey, the 
seat of James Crummer Esq., a sulphureous water 
was discovered which contains 
Muriate of Soda, 


Carbonate of Iron, 


united with carbonic acid gas, and sulphureted 



hydrogen. These ingredients do not however, 
exist in sufficient quantity to constitute a medicinal 
water. All the springs in the vicinity of Llandrin- 
dod contain lime ; and the only one in which I could 
not detect it, was a small well in the garden at 
Howey, not far from the sulphureous water. This 
is a very pure water, and suspends only a little 
muriate of soda, or common salt.” 


There is a work to be had of Booksellers with the 
plausible title of “ A collection of Welsh Tours 
than which, to say the least, there cannot be a more 
useless book put into a traveller’s hand. It abounds 
with inaccuracies, and misleads at every step, with 
no fault of the respective authors, who have long 
gone the final tour “ from which no traveller re- 
turns yet mercenary and unprincipled Booksellers 
are to be found continually republishing the early 
Welsh Tours, made anterior to all the modern im- 
provements which have taken place within the 
greater part of a century. These facetious gentlemen 
sometimes amuse us with marvellous tales, utterly 


Llandrindod Wells, 

unknown to the natives of the country, who are 
gneatly astonished to hear of the ancient inhabitants 
of their mountains, the Goats, still browzing on the 
rocks. At the present day I believe there is not a 
topographical work in existence but what describes 
Aberystwith with a Gothic church, although the sea, 
about a century since, has advanced beyond the site 
of such a structure; a part of the yard of which, in 
the memory of some of the elder inhabitants could 
be traced from the bones frequently washed up by 
the waves. The present church is a small structure 
built by subscription a few years ago. I was led into 
these remarks by reading a passage from one of these 
antiquated pages, connected with our present sub- 
ject, which, as it elicits some objects of contrast to 
the present state of things, I beg leave to transcribe. 
It will be observed, the tourists are on their way from 
Newtown to Llandrindod. “ Four miles carried us 
“to the summit of a mountain, the ascent to which 
‘‘begins at Newtown:' the path over this mountain 
“is intricate and boggy; but we were fortunate 
“enough to find it, though the disagreeable uncer- 
“tainty of being in the right track preyed upon our 
“spirits for many miles. We afterwards dipped into 



“ two or three Radnorshire dales, and arrived at 
“ Llandrindod. We had many views of old intrench- 
“meuts from this route; but they afforded small 
“ relief to the tediousness of crawling through vile 
“ roads and a melancholy waste. The Wells of Llan- 
drindod are situated in a wild extensive heath, 
some spots of which are rarely enlivened with a 
“ few trees, and small cultivated enclosures. The 
“ mountains bound the dreary prospect at a dis- 
“ tance.” It is truly gratifying to witness the change 
wrought in these latter years ; the “ melancholy 
wastes” are considerably cheered and vivified by 
inclosures and plantations; and the “vile roads” 
between Newtown and Llandrindod are become ex- 
cellent ones, destined however, to further and imme- 
diate improvement, for the reception of the mail 
coach, which it is said will run over Llandrindod 
common towards Builth and Brecon. A Van is 
already established, and passes this way w'eekly, 
thus affording a direct communication between 
North and South Wales, Manchester, and Carmar- 
then. This may be useful information to the visitors 
of Llandrindod, Park Wells, Builth, or Llanwrtyd, 
for the conveyance of their trunks, goods, and 



Llandrindod Wells, 

Since writing the above a coach has been started, 
to run between Brecon, Newtown, Welshpool, Ches- 
ter, and Manchester; and it is expected its route will 
extend to Swansea, 

The banks of the river Elain, beyond Rhaiader 
afford a pleasant ride towards Cwm Elain. The bare 
overhanging rocks in this direction are very 
romantic. Ruggedness, it is true, is a particular 
characteristic here, but the traveller who is effemi- 
nate enough to whine his complaints of such trivial 
circumstances, should stay at home. The lover of 
“ Nature in her wildest dress” will pursue his route 
through Wales in the vigorous spirit of our prince 
of modern poets. 

“ Away ye gay landscapes ! ye gardens of roses I 
In you let the minions of luxury rore. 

Give me the rocks where the snow-ffake reposes, 

For ah ! they are sacred to Freedom and Love. 
England ! thy beauties arc tame and domestic 
To one who has roved o’er the mountains afar, 

Oh for the crags that are wild and majestic 

The dark frowning glories of deep Loch na Garr.” 





Rhaiader Gwy, stands 8 miles North-west of 
Llandrindod, and 178 miles from London. Its Eng- 
lish name would he the Fall of the Wye, from 
Rhaiader, a cataract, and Gwy, tlie welsh for 
Wye. That designation is very inapplicable 
in these days, as from the continual running of the 
river in the past centuries, its rocky bed is worn 
away, and the water-fall, once, perhaps, magnificent, 
is at present reduced to a few feet, and scarcely ob- 
servable. It was formerly the chief village in Mae- 
lienydd, but at present a market town, divided into 
four streets, forming a cross, and bearing great re- 
semblance to the town of Cloyne in Ireland, a plan 
common to many towns in North Wales. The pre- 
dilection of the dignitaries of the law (as well as of 
the church) for good cheer, who are proverbially 
said to “hang the guiltless rather than eat their 
mutton cold; ” seems singularly verified in the fate 
of poor Rhaiader; where, in the time of Henry VIII, 
the quarter sessions were held, according to an act 
of parliament passed in that reign, but soon repeal- 
ed on account of its alledged poverty, and inability 
to afford the necessary accommodation and dignity 


Llandrindod Wells, 

required by the judges, who then resided at an old 
house called Pen-y-Porth, “ Head of the Gate. ” 
Itis supposed to have declined still, from that time, 
for what could be expected from so graceless a town 
that could not yield goodly fare to the sages of the 
law!— whether the fault was in the viands or the cook, 
whether a limited quantity, or quality of fish, flesh, 
and fowl, or lack of culinary skill in the dressing 
them that deprived Rhaiader of its dignity is not 
precisely ascertained; but its fate presents an awful 
moral, and serious warning, to other towns favoured 
with judicial visits ; an honor that many towns of 
Wales most ungratefully hold in slight regard, as 
they very uncourteously abrogate the period of their 
stay, by having no criminals ; a circumstance that 
emphatically marks their attributed absence of ci- 
vilization, and punishes accordingly, by imposing 
the tax of white ribbons for the Judges & Barristers: 
an antediluvian badge, ’tis true, grown elsewhere out 
of use, emblematic of innocence; which it is thought 
a more immediate connexion with the English, as at 
Merthyf, and the manufacturing districts wiU effec- 
tually banish, and they will consequently, in time, 
become rational creatures. Oh the beauty and ex- 



cellence of civilization ! the merits of which struck 
me very forcibly some time ago while listening to 
the expressive eloquence of a Merthyr waggoner, or 
carter, towards hishorses well translated into Welsh. 
His oaths were not quite so modish, perhaps as Bob 
Acres’s, but certainly as curious and more forcible, 
as he seemed to have studied Shakespeare’s advice 
to the players. 

“ Suit ttie action to the word, and the word to the action, 

With thU special observance, that you o’erstep not 
The modesty of nature.” 

Fastidious critics might conceive he had failed in 
the latter part of the precept, but as to the former, 
the most queazy would own him to be inimitable ; 
it was but a word and a blow, and the blow general- 
ly first, each innumerably and most vividly multi- 
plied. As 1 confess myself unable to follow very 
minutely the varying turns and flounshes of his 
oratory, the divers tropes and figures of which 
might claim a high stand on the score of originality, 
I seek the privilege afforded me in the last line of 
the above quotation, to evade giving a specimen. 
Merthyr, a town long benefitted by an intercourse 
with the English (many of whom have condescended 


Llandrindod Wells, 

to make immense fortunes there,) and of course 
claiming a superior advancement in civilization to 
most other Welsh towns, was at this time in a great 
ferment on account of the supposed odd turn dis- 
coverable in one of their citizens: an Englishman, 
in the selection of his diversions, suspected 
to have amused himself by murdering his wife; and 
to have refined on that act by boiling the body with 
other food for the dogs of one of the Iron Masters, 
to whom he is a gamekeeper ; while others have 
yielded him more taste, and hazarded a conjecture 
on the probability of a more 'classical death, that 
the body was burnt by being thrust at night into 
one of the furnaces ; a sacrifice at once to the three 
deities. Wrath, Fear, and Silence. But be it as it 
may, notwithstanding the activity and vigilance of 
the Bow-street Police Officer, who was sent for, to 
search on the occasion, the absence of the pdor wo- 
man has not yet been accounted for, nor her body 
found. But to return to Rhaiader, what, in the name 
of historic fidelity ! can Mr. Cooke mean by telling 
us in his Topography of Great Britain, that “ in 
the centre of the town stands the hall, a havdsome, 
modern, square building, erected about 1768 > mo- 



dern it is, and square, but in what its handsomeness 
consists, it is very difficult to discover. Truly it was 
built by a member of parliament, and franks are 
convenient, but may be paid for too dearly, when 
the veracity of an eulogist is called in question. 
The former author more correctly adds, “ the church 
is likewise a modern structure, built in the form of 
an oblong square, with a quadrangular stone tower 
and turrets ; the latter rebuilt in 1783.” On refer- 
ring to Pinnock’s topography, by way of amuse- 
ment, to see how he describes it, to my great 
surprise I find a similar description in the following 
words. “ It’s town hall is a handsome edifice, and 
it has a free school recently erected.” It is evident 
one of these accounts is borrowed from the other, 
and the error, with a thousand others, propagated 
by various authors in the same imitative strain. 
Now gentle reader, this handsome town hall is one 
of the ugliest I ever beheld. Except the ends, 
which are built of a rude sort of stone, it is princi- 
pally formed of wood, and is, altogether, a low, dull 
ungainly apology for a town hall. There are two 
respectable inns at Rhaiader, one called the Red 
Lion, lately taken by a new comer, where the two 


Llandrindod Wells, 

coaches which pass between Aberystwith, Presteign, 
and Pen-y-Bont, change horses ; the other called 
the Lion and Castle, where good cheer, accommoda- 
tion, and attention, has characterized the house of 
“mine host” Evans, about half a century. This 
respectable inn-keeper has met the merited com- 
mendations of some of our latter tourists, and it 
deserves honorable mention, that he was the first 
who started either a coach or chaise from this place 
towards Havod and Aberystwith, that remained for 
many years the only vehicles of the kind in the 
county, for which spirited undertaking he became a 
favorite with the late Col. Johnes. 


“ In ancient times Rhaiader derived considerable 
importance from its castle, which stood on a nook of 
the river Wye, at the extremity of Maes-bach, 
Little Field, now a small common near the town, 
though its name bespeaks it to have been inclosed 
in former years. Of the superstructure nothing re- 
mains, but the original foundation may be traced, 
especially on fhe South-east, where it has still a deep 



trench cut out of the hard rock, leading to the river. 
There is another trench, more to the south, forming 
three sides of a quadrangle, and about eight feet 
deep ; there also appears to have been left originally, 
between the two trenches, a narrow space, by which 
the town m ight hold a communication with the cas- 
tle, and is at present the only entrance. 

Immediately below the latter is a deep foss, about 
sixteen feet deep, and twelve wide, running along 
the foundation of the old fortess, until it communi- 
cates with a steep precipiece, the bottom of which is 
even witli the bed of the river. Adjoining this foss, 
at irregular distances, are several barrows for pur- 
poses unknown ; and at the distance of two furlongs 
below the site of the castle, there is a large tumulus, 
called Tomen l.lan St. Frfid, and near it, on the 
other side, are two more, but smaller, called Cevn 
Ceido, where it is supposed a church formerly stood, 
from an adjoining piece of ground, named Clydwr 
Eglwys. To elucidate the form ^and strength of its 
primitive fortress is impossible at this remote period, 
when not even a stone remains, to assist our conjec- 
tures; however, we are enabled to fix its origin as a 
military station in A. D. 1177, and to ascertain its 


Llandrindod Wells, 

having been first built by Rhys, prince of South 
Wales, as a check to the depredations and cruelties 
of his Norman neighbours, who were very trouble- 
some to the Welsh at that period. Caradoc of Llau- 
carvan, in his Chronicle of Wales, briefly mentions, 
that it was completed in the same year; but in 1178, 
we find the sons of Conan (the latter an illegitimate 
son of Owen Gwynedd), having joined their forces, 
marched to attack this castle, but without success, 
as they raised the siege, and returned to North Wales 
greatly disappointed. 

In 1192, Maelgon formed a conspiracy against his 
father, and burnt this castle, which prince Rhys re- 
built in 1194; but soon surrendered to Cadwallon, 
who after several battles was defeated by Roger 
Mortimer, and dispossessed of all his estates in 

From this period, hostilities appeared to have 
ceased, and no mention is made of Rhaiader castle, 
until the time of Henry the Third, when it was 
burnt to the ground, by Llewelyn ab lorwerth, and 
probably not since rebuilt.” 



It may be observed of Rhaiader, it stands in a 
narrow wooded and romantic vale, but although 
many respectable country gentlemen live in its im- 
mediate neighbourhood, the steps of improvement 
are very slow here ; the streets are wide, and with 
very little trouble it might be made a neat and cre- 
ditable market town ; but the accumulated floods, 
in winter make the streets almost impassable on 
foot, the removal. of which evil, by making proper 
channels to carry oflf the water, should be the first 

About two miles South of the town stands an 
alpine pool called 


the fair lake ; with considerable claims to so dis- 
tinguished a designation, and a man of fortune and 
taste, by re-planting and ornamenting its margin, 
might with ease convert it into the most charming 
gem on the bosom of the landscape ; but 

“ Without fine nerves, and bosom justly warm’d, 

An eye, an ear, a fancy to be charm’d, 

In vain majestic Wren expands the doom. 

Blank as pale stucco Rubens lines the room. 

Lost are the raptures of bold Ilandcl’s strain. 

Great Tully storms, sweet Virgil sings in vain j. 


Llandrindod Wells, 

The beautious forniB of Nature are effaced, 

Teinpe’s soft vale, the raging watery waste, 

Each greatly wild, each sweet romantic scene 
Unheeded rises, and almost unseen. 

Tis chiefly taste, or blunt, or gross, or fine, 

Makes life insipid, bestial or divine ; 

Better be born with taste, to little rent, 

Than the dull monarch of a continent ; 

Without this bounty, which the Gods bestow. 

Can Fortune make one fav’rite happy ? no ! 

As well might Fortune, in her frolic vein. 

Proclaim an Oyster sovereign of the main.” 


The habit of cutting timber, without the patriotic 
precaution of re-planting, can' never be sufficiently 
deprecated, especially in respect to this once woody, 
but now bare, country. But nature has been so ex- 
ceedingly beautiful in her bedeckment of Llyn 
Gwyn, as to place it out of the power of barbarity 
or neglect to deprive it of high admiration. Malkin 
describes it with much felicity. “Llyn Gwyn, the 
only picturesque lake in Radnorshire; but this is 
pre-eminently so. We looked down upon it, imme- 
diately under us, from the perpendicular heights, 
by which it is inaccessibly surrounded on every 
side but the South, where it has an outlet, discbarg- 



ing its excess of copiousness into the Wye below. 
On that side is also a lower and less abrupt hill, co- 
vered with the finest timber of* the forest. Beyond 
is an immense reach of the Wye in all its glory, 
meandering discernibly at intervals, as low as Builth, 
and furnishes a rich and gay distance, in striking 
contrast with the immediate scene at hand.” 

About four miles South West of Rhaiader, is a 
deep narrow defile, through which runs the river 
Elain, called 


the vale of Does, which, like all welsh names is 
very characteristic, for though a light stream, its 
rush is peculiarly rapid and impetuous. Mr. Malkin 
certainly deviates from his usual correctness in the 
reasons he states for giving the names of animals to 
rivers in Wales. He says, “ On the subject of the 
Elain it may be observed, that names of rivers are 
very common in Wales, which would be translated 
in English by doe, buck, stag, hog, roebuck, raven, 
wolf, and other such appellations, perhaps because, 
in the original sylvan state of the island these ani- 
mals abounded more than usual in some woody vales 
or glens. Hence these places, with the rivers run- 


Llandrindod Wells, 

ning though them, derived their titles.” — And hence 
it is evident that Mr. Malkin, although one of the 
most intelligent, industrious, and agreeable tourists 
through Wales, is, notwithstanding, no Welshman ; 
or he would know that the names of farms, hills, 
vales, and all objects on the landscape, especially 
rivers, are correctly descriptive, and strikingly cha- 
racteristic ; so that when the names of animals 
are attached to them, they merely figure the speed 
of the stream. Hence we have the Dau Cleddy, 
Two Swords, in Pembrokeshire, expressive of a ri- 
gid undeviating straightness ; and Ystwith, in Car- 
diganshire, signifying the pliable, from its winding 
undulations towards either of the valley’s sides, to 
and fro, to the utter waste of much ground ; the 
Rheidiol has its name from a similar cause ; and 
“ddu” black, is a frequent termination in a river’s 
name, descriptive of the stilly depth of their frequent 
pools, when the water acquires a sombre hue. Cwm 
Elain has been much and deservedly eulogised by 
tourists, as a journey there, and the following ex- 
tracts, will evince; premising that neither of them, 
except the correct and enquiring Mr. Malkin have 
given the name of the valley its proper orthography. 



“ Cwm Elan, the seat of T. Grove, Esq., who has 
with a skill and perseverance beyond all praise, 
brought the rude waste around his mansion into a 
good state of cultivation. The house is elegant 
and commodious.” 


“ About four miles westward from Rhaiader] is 
Cwm Elain, the seat of Thomas Grove, Esq. of Fern, 
in Wiltshire, who, some years since, purchased 
10,000 acres of land, called the Grange of Cwm 
Deuddwr, vale of the two streams, then a rude and 
uncultivated waste ; but it is now, under the direc- 
tion of its proprietor, brought into a good state of 

The name of Cwm Elain is derived from the little 
tonent Elain, which runs through the cwm, or valley, 
in which Mr. Grove has erected his elegant mansion, 
in the modern stile of architecture, and defended on 
all sides by hills, some of which are wooded to the 
very water’s edge. The approach to the house is 
over a handsome wooden bridge, leading to a fine 
verdant lawn, which expands itself from the house 
to the bridge, and forms a curve with the river Elain, 
unitinsT a singular combination of natural and artifi- 

O O 


Llandrindod Wells, 

cial beauties, of wild scenery and elegant ornament, 
of a foaming river and rugged rocks, perpendicular 
precipices and lofty mountains, contrasted with rich 
meadows, & neat enclosures, leaving apparently no- 
thing deficient to complete this singular and roman- 
tic scene. 

In following the course of the Elain through Mr. 
Grove’s estate only, we are often struck with its 
numerous beauties, particularly one mile from the 
house, where the pedestrian crosses a rude alpine 
bridge formed of the branches of trees thrown from 
rock to rock over the Elain, dashing between them, 
at the depth of thirty feet. 

At this place, the bed of the river is a schistus 
rock, full of huge excavations of every conceivable 
shape and magnitude, of a milk-white hue, render- 
ing the profound gulph of water which they contain 
more dark and horrible ; particularly after rain, when 
swelled with the mountain torrent, its fury is terri- 
ble, as it rolls through a channel which offers so 
many obstacles to the progress of its impetuous 
course. The Elain preserves this wild and irregular 
channel for several miles, confined within a rocky 
chasm, the sides of which are perpendicular, and at 



times of great height, discoloured with drippings, 
tinted with mosses, and crowned with mountain 
ash, birch, and wych-elms ; the whole forming a 
more wild and grotesque appearance than can be 

But “last and best” comes Mr. Malkin’s account 
of Cwra Elain, which is agreeably introduced, 

“ Radnorshire is generally considered, in a pic- 
turesque point of view, as the least interesting of 
the Welsh counties. If this is to be understood as 
applying to it on the whole, it is undoubtedly true ; 
for both its grandeur and beauty are, with few ex- 
ceptions, confined to its Western side, on a narrow 
edge of the Wye, opposite Brecknockshire, and to 
that North-western nook, which touches upon the 
counties of Montgomery and Cardigan, and partici- 
pates in the irrefragable majesty of their character. 
But Radnorshire, independently of the Wye, has 
insulated scenes, which vie with any thing to be 
found in the whole compass of the district that sur- 
toonds it. I need only mention the dingle, through 
which the Machwy runs, the vale of Edwy, and the 

beauties of Cwm Elain, to illustrate the truth of my 



Llandrindod Wells, 

assertion. In the two last especially, are realised 
those apparent contrarieties of luxuriance and bar- 
renness, sylvan decoration and leafless horror, the 
blended description of which, in works of fancy, we 
are apt to criticise as out of nature. They certainly 
are so for the most part, and our poets, to say 
nothing' of our painters, cannot easily be acquitted 
of dealing in them too profusely, and indiscrimin- 
ately. But they do exist, as exceptions to a 
general rule ; and here seem almost to introduce the 
traveller in fairy land ; particularly if his spirits 
have become languid, and the elasticity of his ex- 
pectations has been slackened, by toiling over the 
Eastern division of the county, where his imagina- 
tion is neither kept alive by what is grand, nor his 
speculations as a philosopher or economist excited 
by the improvements of science, working on the 
higher capabilities of nature. The road along Cwm 
Elain sometimes passes through groves of oak, with 
naked points and mountnneous projections impend- 
ing over their tops. Here the rock is continually 
burst and broken by the fibres of roots which seem 
to possess no sources of nourishment equal to the 
growth they sustain. The scenery beyond Mr. 



Grove’s house becomes wilder : the path lies along 
the side of a rock, down which rushes a mountain 
brook, frequently bringing with it such masses of 
stone as might endanger an incautious traveller. 
At this point the channel of the Elain assumes a new 
aspect. The rocks choak it; it forces its passage 
through curving gullies ; the deep gulph of water 
becomes black and terrific, contrasted with the milk- 
white rock which it excavates. The stone which 
occasions this whiteness is quartz alternating with 
schistus, whose colour is grey, inclining to brown, 
every where in Wales. Quartz is very frequently 
found inbedded in hom-blend schistus, and at the 
bottoms of rivers generally appears protuberant, and 
often very beautiful, but always white. The foot 
passenger leaves this scene to cross some cultivated 
lands, and comes suddenly upon it again, to pass a 
truly alpine bridge of planks from rock to rock, over 
a continued, but no where precipitous, waterfall. 
Immediately under this tremendous bridge, the river 
wears its way, at the depth of thirty feet, cutting 
the smooth white rock into the greatest possible va- 
riety of shapes. After rain, the fury of the torrent. 


Llandrindod Wells, 

confined for sev^eral miles within a roCky chasm, is 
awful in the extreme.” 

In a delightful bottom, seven miles North-east of 
Hhaiader, on a fertile bank of the Clywedog, stand 
the ancient and venerable remains of the only religi- 
ous house of the kind in the county, called 

ABBEY cwmc-mR. * 

The valley on which it stands is delightful, sur- 
rounded by hills of different altitudes, one of which, 
to the North is 1,511 yards high. These hills have 
a most grand appearance, fonning an amphitheatre 
round its fertile bottom. From one side of the fore- 
mentioned stupendous hill there is a gradual ascent 
called the Park, which was formerly nine miles in 
circumference, and stocked with above 300 deer. 
The foundations of two deer-houses are still visible. 
Its fragments and ruins, which may still be traced, 
prove it to have been a very considerable structure. 
The walls remaining shew an area of 255 feet long, 
and 73 broad ; which is certainly very dispropor- 

• The reader who is not a native of Wales, may be told, tlrig 
' ••wor4 is prononnced Coorn Hear; the name signifies “Ahbejr 
of the Long Vole.” 


' 77 


' the length ; hut what the superstructure 

might have been, is impossible to discover from the 

remaining walls, only a few feet above the surface, 

composed of some common stone from a qijiarry in 

the great park, w ithout a single mark of the chissel. 

This rendei-s it difficult to determine of what spe- 
cies of architecture this great monastery was origin- 
ally composed, having neither door, window, arch, 
nor column now remaining ; yet the refectory may 
be traced, with a few square apertures in the North 
side about two feet .from the grQ.und> but for what 
purpose these were originally designed is very .un- 
certain, being too low and small for windows, though 
possessing every requisite for the admission of air. 
There is a tradition, current in this country, that 
some specimens of the architecture of this abbey 
may be found, in good preservation, in Llanidloes 
chjirch, , consisting of six arches, surrounded with 
small columns, ending in capitols of palm^leaves, 
which, according to a date on the roof, were brought 
from Abbey Cwmhirin 1542, and which corresponds 
with the general dissolution of monasteries in this 
kingdom. According to Lelaud, this Abbey was 
founded by CadWalon ab Madoc, in 1143, for sixty 


Llandrindod Wells, 

Cistertian monks, but never finished. Amid the 
fallen fragments on the North-east side, the monks* 
habitations are supposed to have been, and is pro- 
bably the same which Leland calls the third, and 
unfinished part. 

“ How many hearts have here grown cold. 

That sleep these mouldering tombs among ; 

How many beads have here been told, 

How many matins here been sung. 

On these.rude stones, by time long broke, 

I think I see some pilgrims kneel, 

I think I see the censer smoke, 

I think 1 hear the solemn peal, 

But here no more soft music floats. 

No holy anthems chaunted now ; 

All hush’d, except the owl’s shrill note, 

Low murm’ring from yon broken bough.” 


On the dissolution of monasteries, it is supposed, 
with much probability iu the circumstances adduced, 
that a number of the monks from this abbey trans- 
ferred their establishment to an antique farm house 
near, and still in existence called Monachty, /'3Ionk"s 
House, J in a remote and secluded situation, in the 
parish of Llangynllo; while a colony from thence^ 



according to Mr. Vaughan of H6ngwrt, founded the 
Abbey of Cyxnmer in Merionethshire. The Monks 
of Abbey Cwmhir were decidedly hostile to the 
interests of Owen Glendower, for which reason he 
destroyed their Abbey in 1401. It is remarkable 
that while this chieftain always protected the Fran- 
ciscan brothers, the Cistertian monks were always 

doomed to endure his desolating vengeance when- 


ever he crossed their establishments. 

This place being rebuilt, in the style of an 
antique dwelling-house, became, for many years, the 
residence of the Fowlers, commencing in the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth, as appears by the style of the 
building. The former importance of that family is 
well conveyed to us in the popular adage quoted in 
this work, page 17. 

From hence the visitor of Llandrindod Wells may 
return there, by retracing his steps to Rhaiader, 
and then varying them by taking the road to Builth 
along the course of the Wye. 


This road, long a rugged one, is much improved, 
and continually improving. The distance between 


Llandivindod Wells, 


Euilth and Rhaiader is ■©•miles; the turnpike road 
almost the whole of the way running' along the 
banks of the Wye, the scenery is often strikingly 
beautiful, with considerable variation from craggy 
promontories and barren wilds, to grassy dells, occa- 
sionally graced with sturdy forest trees and young 
plantations of ever-green pines and larches, 
forming a chaplet, gay and immarcessible, to beau- 
tify Wen the sullen brows of winter. 

The objects on this road are so well described by 
"Mr. Malkin, it were mere idleness, except in one 
instance, to attempt an addition or improvement to 
his spirited sketch, which There transcribe ; pre- 
mising, he commences at Builth, and concludes at 

“ I shall briefly trace the coarse of the Wye between Builth and 
Rhaiader, •which, with its descent from Pinilimmon above, will 
comprise its whole passage through Radnorshire. This is tl»e 
direct. road from Brecknock to Cardiganshire, which I pursued 
in the summer : the circuitous, .and as to scenery, less interest, 
ing, route through the heart of the county, was afterwards cho- 
sen for J-ariety, and from curiosity 5 but those who are confined 
to one visit will find nothing in the interior to make amends for 
Jhtiloss.^ this , romantic stage, by the banks of the fVye, 



from the handsome bridge of six arches at Builth, Llanelweth 
House forms a well-dressed object, in a district whose geue^ 
, characteristic is wildness.” — . 

Here I am obliged to stop short, and express my 
surprise that this tourist should omit to notice a far 
nobler and better-dress’d object than Llapelweth, 
which is seated immediately below it oil the plain, 
in all the homely associations -of -domestic common 
life ; namely, Wellfield House, a noble mansion on a 
commanding height, elegantly surrounded with 
,handsoDiQ and matured groves, that in a high degree 
bears the palm of beauty and superiority from every 
seat or object in the vicinity of Builth ; and from 
the bridge appears to occupy a proud station on an 
elevated gnoll, and looks the very crown of the well- 
wooded landscape. To account for such an omission 
is impossible, and so I proceed with my extract. 

“ After travelling about a mile near the banks of the river, 
which in the plain is broad and unencumbered, it becounea 
-rocky, confined, rapid, and majestic. Here its current is con- 
-cealed by deep and shady woods, there its foaming waters are 
overhung by threatning crags, and br^k with their hoarse roar 
tlie general silence of the lonely, scene. From this place benijB 
a little to the right, quitting the Wye for a dreary common of 
two or three miles in extent, the tediousness of which is termin- 
-«ted atlthon- bridge, and the rest of the journey to Bimiacto6 

•F 3. 


Llandrindod Wells, 

becomes picturesque, various, and interesting in the extreme. 
That river, placid almost to tameness about Pen-y-bont, assumes 
an air of grandeur as it approaches its junction vrith a more 
important stream. Its bed is still narrow, but enclosed between 
high and perpendicularly rising cliffs. About the bridge they 
are for the most part as a wall, but luxuriantly surmounted with 
branching trees, in all the variety of sylvan accompaniment. 
Sometimes the disparted stratification leaves an opening to the 
fibres of roots, with which the rock is impregnated, to put forth 
a dwarfish growthj that agreeably breaks the continuity of the 
erect and naked precipiece. There is, though it may uot be very 
easy to describe it, a peculiarity about the scenery of this little 
river, that strongly distinguishes its character from that of any 
other among the many and beautiful rivers of South Wales. 

The Ithon is scarcely out of the traveller’s sight 
before he renews his acquaintance with the Wye, to 
leave it no more, but follow all its twistings and de- 
viations, till he reaches the town of Rhaiader. The 
banks of the river are rich in verdure and. foliage, 
the road on the Eastern side running at first at the 
foot of rocky hills, which increase with the progress 
of the journey into mountains. The road is after- 
wards carried over heights, which rise abruptly from 
the very brink of the river, and command a succes- 
sion of the most picturesque landscapes. Sometimes 
4the mountains, that form the side screens, recede to 



the right and left, and would seem to leave a freer 
passage, but that the front is occupied by new ones 
rising to the view. The grey mist hanging half way 
down them on a stormy evening made it seem like 
approaching night at six o’clock, in the month of 
July. Here we travel through a fine wood ; imme- 
diately afterwards barren rocks obtrude themselves 
almost offensively on the eye, not naked at the top 
only, but from their very base presenting no better 
appearance of herbage than a little fern. Again the 
river becomes rocky; new commons are stretched 
out in every direction; but the general nakedness of 
the country is relieved by the young plantations 
about a neat house on the right, called Llwyn-y- 
Barried, on a moderate declivity. From this place 
to Rhaiader is a scene of an uninterrupted beauty. 
On the Western side of the river are several stately 
groves of oaks : the meadows on the Eastern are 
rich and cultivated. The pedestrian traveller may 
take a nearer and very beautiful path along these 
meadows, which lead him to a new turnpike road 
just finished, and cut with a labour apparently not 
to be compensated by any traffic here, out of the 
mountain again closing in upon the river. Perhaps 


Llandrindod Wells, 

the most engaging scene in this stretch of country 
is about a mile from Rhaiader, at the confluence of 
the Clarwen with the Wye, the former coming in 
from the West, in a lancet-like direction, the two 
composing, with their accompaniments of wood and 
trock, a rich assemblage of whatever a painter’s art 
«or poet’s fancy can combine or imagine. 

'’d poet’s wish, expressed in the 
.following sonnet, might be amply gratified among 
the. scenery of.this route, except that instead of the 
“ music of the wild wave,” the no less romantic 
melody of the .mountain torrent alone would be 
amply afforded ; and in lieu of the browzing goat, 
would need be content with the grazing sheep. 

“ Give me a cottage on some Cambrian wild, 

.Where, far from cities, I may spend my days. 

And, by the beauties of the scene beguiled. 

May pity man's pursuits, and shun his ways: 

While on the rock I mark the browzing goat. 

List to the mountain torrent’s distant noise. 

Or the hoarse bittern’s solitary note, 

I shall not want tli&world’s delusive joys ; 

But with my little scrip, my book, my lyre. 

Shall think my lot complete, nor covet more 
. And when, with time^ shall wane' the vital fire', 

. I'll raise my pillow on the doaart shore. 



And lay me down to rest where the wild wave 

Shall make sweet musie o’er my lonely grave.” 

11. Kibkb White. 

As Builth will occupy a soparate place in this 
• work, when the merits of the Park Wells come under 
discussion, we forbear to say more of it at present 
than name the principal inn, -which is called the 
Black Lion, kept by Mr. Davies, remarkable for its 
-comforts, and indeed, superior .accommodations. 
The assiduities of Mrs. Davies, late Gwilym, are 
well known and appreciated by travellers. 



These seven miles are over a good road, affording 
at all times an agreeable ride or drive. About halt 
a mile on, at the base of the rugged rocks of Llanel- 
.weth, stands tlie village of Llanelwelh, remarkable 
for nothing more than a. neat village church. On 
, looking back from hence towards Builih, the straji- 
ger will catch a most agreeable view of that towin, 
the bridge, and a portion of the surrounding land- 
scape, that will yield fine scope for his muse, pencil,^ 
or contemplation. About two miles further, on well 
planted and pleasant looking grounds, stands a les- 
pectable mansion called Pen-Cerrig, long the faruily 


Llandrindod Wells, 

residence of the Jones’s, but now the property of 

Thomas Esq. There is below the house, at the 

bottom of a large meadow, a fine pool, that reaches 
to the hedge dividing it from the turnpike road. 
From hence the beauty of scenery worsens at every 
step as we quit the Wye, till it arrives at its acme 
of barrenness at Llandrindod. On leaving the vil- 
lage of Howey, which is enlivened with numerous 
young plantations of fir, there is nothing to greet 
the eye till within sight of the Pump House. There 
are some walks to be found even about Llandrindod 
common ; we would principally recommend one to- 
wards the site of Cefn Llys Castle. The rides, drives 
or walks towards the North-east part of the county, 
through Pen-y-Bont, shall be pointed out, with all 
their incidental objects of note when the Wells of 
Llanddegley and Blaenedw come to be treated of; 
in the mean time the reader shall be made acquaint- 
ed with the principal object, perhaps, of his visit 


The gay and happy votaries of health and fashion 
may find but little satisfaction in poring over a dry 
analysis or diffused narrative of the cases in which 

.87 ^ , 

' Radnorshire." 

these spas administer relief; but the poor invalid 
will search every line with eager avidity, to discover 
the desired treasure that will charin back the long- 
absent angel Health. To accommodate the former, 
therefore, the following abridgement is submitted, 
while to the latter, the enlarged and copious account 
is more especially addressed. 

The Rock Water issues out of a slate rock which contains a 
vast quantity of iron earth, salts, sulphur, and carbonic acid gas; 
the last has the property of acting on the stomach like adram,aud 
is an excellentstimulanttothe nerves. This water is generally pro- 
scribed in chronical diseases, which proceed from a weakness in 
the dbres, scorbutic eruptions, weak nerves, palsies, ora laxity 
of the whole frame ; and in agues, diseases of women, and se- 
minal weakness of both sexes. 

Tub Saline Pomp Watbb is very beneficial in various discae- 
es, particularly the scurvy, end other eruptions ; in hypochon- 
driac disorders, in fevers, and in the stone or gravel. It should 
be drank from about the middle of March to November, it being 
then in its greatest perfection. 

The Sclphoe Water, when thrown on hot iron emits a blue 
flame, and smells like brimstone. Silver leaves have been chang- 
ed in less than six minutes into afine yellow gold colour. Itisbest 
adapted for an artificial bath, or any external use designed for 
the relief of chronic diseases. It is also very beneficial when used 
as an internal medicine, and recommended in venereal diseas- 

Llandrindqd Wells, 

es, old.sores, diseases of the. head, stone and gravel, rheumatism, 
and gouty complaints. The scrophula, has often been cured by 
an internal and external use of the sulphur water. It should be 
remembered it is purgative, therefore some preparation is neces- 
sary; forthis, like other mineral waters, .should be drank in the 
morning upon pm empty stomach. Long .walks or bard ridps 
should be avoided after drinking it. 






As a subject connected with the Analysis of the 
■waters, 1 shall first state my experiments upon the 
soil. It it is not my intention to enter into a minute 
and detailed account of all the different strata in the 
neighbourhood of Llandrindod, but merely to offer a 
few remarks upon themj so far as regaids the 
waters. The soil consists of a blue, white, and red- 
dish, clay, intermixed, and resting upon a slate rock. 


•The rock from which the chalybeate water issues 
is of this kind, of a bluish colour, disposed in stra- 
ta, which are inclined directly downwards to the 
West. It is soft, and easily pulverized in a stone 
mortar, decrepitates in the fire, and changes to a 
dusky red colour ; upon exposure to the air and 
moisture, it crumbles down into a fine powder. It 
‘is of the specific gravity 2372, and effervesce^ 
strongly with the mineral acids. 


Llandrindod Wells, 

A. 1000 grains were boiled in sixteen ounces of 
distilled water for thirty minutes, the solution being 
separated and examined with various re-agents, was 
found to contain onlyaslight trace of sulphate of lime, 

B. 100 grains were exposed to a red heat for 
twenty minutes, and lost by weight 5.5 grains, 
principally water of absorption. 

C. 100^ grains were boiled for three hours with 
nitro-muriatic acid diluted with distilled water. The 
solution gave a white precipitate with muriate of 
barytes, denoting the presence of a small proportion 
of sulphur, which had been converted into sulphuric 
acid during the process. 

Z). 100 grains were digested with 294 grains of 
diluted muriatic acid, and the loss of carbonic acid 
gas being ascertained, amounted to 5 grains. 

E. a. 100 grains were digested in acetid acid, 
which was added until all effervescence ceased; the 
solution was hltered, and the protoxide of iron which 
the acid had dissolved, precipitated by prussiate of 
potash. The solution was afterwards neutralized 
by crystallized carbonate of potash. The carbonate 
of lime was deposited, and when dried at 21 




weighed 12 grains. . 

h. The insoluble matter was boiled for four 
hours in three times its weight of sulphuric acid di- 
luted with distilled water ; the solution was filtered, 
and the residue, after being heated red for fif- 
teen minutes, acquired a white colour, and weigh- 
ed G4 grains. 

0 . The sulphuric solution was mixed with prus- 
siate of potash ; a dark blue precipitate ensued \ it 
was collected, exposed to a red heat for half an hour, 
and then weighed 9.25 grains. 

d. The solution from which the iron had been 
thrown down, was saturated with carbonate of am- 
monia ; the alumina was separated, and when dried 
as the former precipitate, weighed 7.5 grains. 

e. No magnesia could be detected in either of 
the solutions. 100 grains of the slate rock, near to 

the chalybeate water, then contain, of 

•' Grains. 

B. Matter destructible by heat, chiefly water 

of absorption 

E. a. Carbonate of lime or chalk 

b. Silex, or Flint 

c. Iron 

d. Alumina 





Lots, with a trace of sulphate of lime and sulphur, 1.75 




Llandrindod Wells, 


The surface of the common is covered by a short 
peat, which is dug up by the peasants for the pur- 
poses of fuel ; below this is a layer of a dark co- 
loured earth, containing much vegetable matter, 
which rests on a bed of clay, supported by a schis- 
tose rock. To the South there are large masses of 
,the plum-pudding stone. In some places the com- 
mon is drier and more gravelly than in others, which 
are wet, and divided by extensive turbaries. The 
clay near the rock water is of a reddish colour 
streaked with white, soft to the touch, insipid to 
the taste, and intermixed with loose stones and 
pieces of slate, partially soluble in the mineral acids 
•.without effervescence. 

A. 400 grains of the clay taken about 20 yards 
above the spring, and 12 inches below the surface 
of the ground, were exposed to a gentle heat, until 
the water of absorption was driven off, and lost 29 

, B. The remainder was gently bruised in a mor- 
tar, and the loose stones and gravel, separated, by a 
wire sieve, weighed 105 grains. 



! C. The clay was boiled for hal fan hour inapint of 
distilled water, and the fine schistose sand divided 
from the impalpable powder, weighed 46 grains. 
The loose stones and sand were soft, and consisted 
of slate, clay, and iron. The watery solution being 
filtered and evaporated to dryness, did not leave any 
saline residue. 

D. The 220 grains of an impalpable Jlowder 
were digested for twelve hours in cold diluted mu- 
riatic acid, the solution was filtered, and the insolu- 
ble matter, when washed and dried, weighed 203 
grains ; after being exposed to a red heat for half 
an hour, and having its vegetable matter destroyed, 
it weighed 192 grains. 

E. The 192 grains were boiled for two hours 
and a half in sulphuric acid, diluted with four times 
its weight of water ; the solution was filtered, and 
the residue, after being well washed with distilled 
water, and dried, weighed 152 grains. The muria- 
tic acid had dissolved iron combined with alumina, 
and a very minute quantity of carbonate of lime. 
The sulphuric acid had taken up the iron and alu- 
minous earth which were not soluble in cold diluted 
muriatic acid. They were precipitated by succinate 


Llandrindod Wells, 

of ammonia, and when heated to redness, weighed 
35.25 grains. Four hundred grains of the clay, 
according to this analysis, which is intended to shew 
the general composition of the soil near the rock 
water, are then composed of 


Water of absorption 29 

Loose stones and g^ravel 105 

Fine gravel and sand 46 

Iron, alumina, and a trace of lime 17 

Vegetable matter Il 

Peroxide of iron and alumina 35.25 

Silex, finely divided 152 

Loss 4.75 

Total 400 


The soil near the saline and sulphureous waters 
is deeper than that upon the common. It scarcely 
effervesces in any perceptible degree with the mine- 
ral acids, either concentrated or diluted, indicating 
the absence of any notable proportion of a calcere- 
ous earth ; but it feels gritty to the touch, and con- 
tains much s-iliceous matter. 

A. 400 grains were exposed to a red heat for 
tialf an hour, until the water of absorption and ve- 



getable matter were destroyed, and then weighed 
305 grains. 

B. The mass was ignited in a crucible with one- 
third of its bulk of charcoal : it became of a brick- 
red colour, and was strongly attracted by the mag- 
net. The clay was boiled in six ounces of distilled 
water for twenty minutes : the solution was filtered, 
and left in an open dish for some days ; but no pre- 
cipitation of sulphate of lime ensued, neither did 
any appear to exist in the soil. 

C. 400 grains of the clay were dried by a gentle 
heat, and being suflfered to remain in a room of the 
temperature 56° for twelve hours, were found to hare 
absorbed 4.5 grains of water. 

Z). 1000 grains were boiled for twenty minutes in 
a pint of distilled water, but no saline matter could 
be detected in the water of lixiviation. 


E. a. 50 grains of the clay, taken from between 
the saline and sulphureous waters after it had been 
heated red for half an hour, were boiled with one 
drachm of vitriolic acid, diluted with four times 
its weight of water, to dryness ; as some redness re- 
mained in the mass, the process was repeated with 


Llandrindod Weils, 

Half the quantity of acid. The whole was diluted 
with 12 ounces of water, the insoluble matter, sepa- 
rated and dried at a red heat, weighed 32 grains, 

h. The solution was rendered of a dark purple 
colour by the addition of prussiate of potash, and 
the sediment which followed, after being ignited, 
weighed 10 grains. 

c. The liquor thus freed from the iron was neu- 
tralized by carbonate of ammonia, and the alumi- 
nous precipitate which ensued, dried as the former, 
weighed 8 grains. 

d. The neutralized solution being further exa- 
mined by caustic ammonia, gave no indication of 
the presence of magnesia. 

e. The 32 grains (E.a.J of insolluble matter 
were boiled iti distilled water, the solution was fil- 
fefed, and the sulphate of lime precipitated, and 
decomposed by carbonate of potash, weighed about 
0.25 grain. 50 grains of the clay having been 
previously heated red, contained, of 


Silex or flint 31.75 

Iron 10 

Aliiinina 8 

Liuie — .25 

Total 50 




This rock lies about half a mile North of the 
sulphureous water; its specific gravity is 2.29. 
The stone is exceedingly hard, but may be reduced 
to powder by making it red hot, and then suddenly 
plunging it into cold water, it breaks with a smooth 
fracture, and exhibits a grey or bluish surface, in- 
terspersed with dark black spots, and effervesces 
strongly with the mineral acids, giving out nearly 
5 per cent, of carbonic acid gas. The colour of the 
rock depends on the iron ; and although rendered 
lighter by digestion in cold diluted muriatic acid, 
the dark spots cannot be extracted without the 
assistance of heat, when the silex is left perfectly 
white. 50 parts of the rock yielded by analysis, of 


Carbonate of lime 

Iron and alumina 8.25 

Silex 35.25 

Total 50 

From the experiments which have been detailed, 
it is evident that the saline ingredients of the waters 
do not exist in the soil, and that the sterility of the 



Llandrindod Wells, 

common chiefly depends on the want of lime and 
fine gravel, the proper application of which would 
render the stiff clay less coherent, and capable of 
growing farinaceous substances of all descriptions 
fit for the support of man. Sir Humphry Davy 

“ That one cause of the unproductivenes* 
of cold adhesive soils is, that the seed becomes coated 
■with matter impermeable to the air; the grain should 
not, therefore, be buried deeply in the ground, in order that it 
may have free access to the atmosphere, for the mucilage con- 
tained in the cotvledon of the young plant cannot be converted 
into sugar, ■which is the untriment of the young plant, without 
the absorption of oxygen.” 

The saline principles most probably lie dispersed 
through the rock, under a great part of the country; 
and there is little doubt but the number of waters 
already known at L.landrindod might be augmented 
by a careful search. The waters used for domestic 
purposes at Llandrindod, as well as the medicinal 
springs, have their source at a considerable depth, 
and rise through the crevices of the rock. There 
are three wells between the saline and sulphureous 
pumps, the temperature of which varies from 54® to 
58®, according to their exposure to the rays of the 
sun. Two of them are hard waters. Their hard- 



ness proceeds from the muriates of soda and lime, 
and is not therefore dissipated by boiling. At the 
approach of rain they exhale a halitus that obscures 
the transparency of the glass. Their specific gra- 
vity is 1001.5. They all contain carbonic acid, 
and change syrup of violets to a light green, shew- 
ing the existence of a carbonated earth.” 

* “The sulphuret of iron or pyrites is by no means 
uncommon at Llandrindod ; during its decomposi- 
tion, from the influence of the atmosphere, the sul- 
phuric acid combines with the lime to form 
selenite, or with the clay to form alumina, 
and a quantity of sulphuretted hydrogen gas is pro- 
duced. The iron is found in different degrees of 
oxydation. The peroxyd is much more abundant 
than the protoxyd, which latter is the most soluble 
in acids. 

* Previous to this, Mr. Williams has a passage on the 
existence of coal at Llandrindod, omitted here, for the pur- 
pose of giving’ so important a subject a thorough consideration 
in a separate chapter. Dr. Linden has written so positively, 
aqdaddnced such plausible arguments to support his conviction 
of the fact, that it is surely full time to rouse the gentry of this 
country from their discreditable apathy to determine at once 
whether so valuable an acquisition and general a blessing, is 
within reach, and destined to enrich this poor county. 


Llandrindod Wells, 



This valuable spring filtrates through a slate rock, 
depositing in its course a reddish brown precipitate. 
It is situated upon the common, a few feet above 
the level of Llandrindod brook, which runs close to 
it, and about a quarter of a mile West of the saline 
water. This water has been said to bear a near re- 
semblance to that of Lauchstad, in Misnia, three 
miles from Leipsic ; but from the account Hoffman 
has given us of the Lauchstad spa, it would appear 
to be a simple chalybeate water. In July, and in 
the autumn of 1816, when much rain had fallen 
during the summer months, the spring yielded a 
wine pint measure of water in one minute and twelve 
seconds of time. On the second of June, 1817, the 
supply was a wine pint in one minute and ten se- 
conds, and upon the 16th of June, when the weather 
was remarkably fine and dry, the quantity was still 
the same. Nor is it apparently increased in the 



most inclement seasons ; from which it is probable, 
that the source of the spring is at a very considera- 
ble depth. Derham, in his Physico-Theology, re- 
lates a similar instance of a spring at Upminster in 
Essex, which he had observed for twenty years, and 
could not perceive, by his eye, that its stream was 
augmented by the heaviest rains, or dhniuished by 
the greatest droughts. In the summer of 1816, the 
temperature of the water varied from 52o to 54o 
Fahren. In June, 1817, it was steadily at 50“. In 
the summer of 1816, the specific gravity of the 
water at the temp. 54“, the instant it was drawn 
from the spring was uniformly 1009. On the 31st 
May, 1817 when the temperature of the fresh drawn 
water was 50“, its specific gravity was 1004,5. On 
the 16th of June, at the temperature of 50“, its spe- 
cific gravity was 1005. When the specific gravity 
and temperature of a water vary, it is reasonable to 
conclude, that the proportion of its solid contents 
must also vary. After standing in a room of the 
’ temperature 60“ for 12 hours, the water became 
sensibly heavier, which was owing to the place of 
the fixed air being supplied by caloric, for the tem- 
perature of the water was increased to 60“. This 


Llandrindod Wells, 

circumstance might have led the chemists of the last 
century to believe that the “ Gas Sylvestre ” ren- 
dered those waters that contained it lighter than 
others. When taken up from the spring, the water 
is clear and transparent: numerous large bubbles 
are observed adhering to the sides of the vessel, 
which are much increased by agitation. To the 
taste it is saline and chalybeate, and possesses an 
agreeable briskness unaccompanied by any bifter 
flavour. A glass full of the fresh water was expo- 
sed to the atmosphere at the temperature of GO® ; in 
twelve minutes it became of a pearly appearance ; in 
fifteen, air bubbles were very apparent, lining the 
sides of the vessel ; in twenty, the opacity was 
much increased ; in thirty minutes, a slight sedi- 
ment commenced ; and in twelve hours, a yellowish 
precipitate had fallen to the bottom ; the transpa- 
rency of the water was restored, and its saline pro- 
perties predominated ; the pellicle that covered its 
surface was scarcely visible, and to the smell, even 
when fresh drawn, the water did not differ in any 
way from common chalybeate waters. The pearly 
appearance arises from the deposition of the carbon- 
ated earths which are precipitated before the iron. 



These changes are much accelerated by agitating 
the water. A phial, containing four ounces, was 
filled with the fresh water, and immediately closed 
with a ground stopper ; in an hour, a loss of trans- 
parency had occurred ; and in twelve hours, a deli- 
cate white precipitate was very evident. A portion 
of the water was exposed in a glass flask to the 
temperature of 65o , air bubbles were immediately 
disengaged ; at 75°, the water became pearly and 
opaque; at 80o, it had entirely lost its transparency. 
No other change appeared until the water became 
heated to 120«, when it assumed a yellowish colour, 
and became more turbid throughout. A sediment 
gradually formed, but the whole of the iron was not 
precipitated until the boiling temperature had been 
continued for a few minutes. Glass vessels in which 
this water has remained for a short time, after seve- 
ral washings, retain a beautiful irridescent cast, 
which is easily removed by means of diluted muriatic 
acid. A pint of the water kept in an open glass 
vessel for the months of October, November, and 
December, did not manifest any signs of putres- 
cence ; whence we may conclude, that it does not 
contain the smallest trace of animal or vegetable 


Llandrindod Wells, 

matter. It has been remarked, that those chaly- 
beates which contain much animal and vegetable 
matter, recover their property of striking a dark 
colour with galls during the process of putrefaction; 
this is probably owing to the carbonic acid formed, 
re-dissolving the iron. 


Tincture of galls, added to the fresh water, oc- 
casions a pink colour, which gradually changes to 
a fine purple, approaching to black. This efiect is 
not produced after the water has been boiled, or 
exposed to the atmosphere for a short time, de- 
monstrating that the whole of the iron is suspended 
by carbonic acid gas. Prussiate of potash changes 
the fresh water to a beautiful blue, which in twenty- 
four hours is precipitated in the form of a prussiate 
of iron. An infusion of green tea, in a few minutes, 
strikes a purplish lilac. An infusion of black tea 
produces a light blue colour, which soon becomes 
of a dark purple. The blue of litmus is considera- 
bly heightened, and when previously reddened by 
distilled vinegar, its colour is restored. Syrup of 
violets is rendered of a deep grass green, and the 



beautiful red of * Brazil wood soon becomes turned 
to a fine violet hue. But these effects, like that of 
the tincture of galls, are not produced after the 
water has been boiled. The yellow of turmeric is 
uot altered by the fresh water, or even after one 
gallon has been considerably reduced by evapora- 
tion: therefore, the presence of a carbonated earth is 
indicated by the four preceding tests. Nitrate of 
silver produces white clouds tinged with blue, which 
become dark on exposure to the light ; when more 
than a few drops are added, the water assumes a 
reddish brown appearance, and after resting for half 
an hour, lets fall a grey precipitate. Acetate of 
lead causes dense white clouds with a copious sedi- 
ment of the same colour, shewing the existence of 
muriatic acid, and the absence of any sulphureous 
principle. No sulphuric acid can be discovered by 
the delicate tests of nitrate or muriate of barytes, 
with or without the assistance of heat. A little 
nitric acid was dropped into the fresh water, witli 
the view of saturating the iron and calcareous earth. 

* The tincture of Brazil wood canuot be depended upon 
alone as a test of the presence of a carbonated earth, for it is 
itself decomposed by a simple solution of iron'. 

G 2 


Llandrindod Wells, 

and afterwards some nitrate of barytes ; but at the 
end of twelve hours, not the least cloudiness could 
be discovered. The oxolate of ammonia, and the 
oxalic acid, denote the presence of a large quantity 
of lime ; and the caustic ammonia, that of magnesia. 
The caustic ammonia precipitates lime from the 
fresh water by combining with the fixed air ; but 
both these changes take place after the water has 
been concentrated by boiling. The fresh water 
curdles soap, and mixes smoothly into an opaline 
solution with milk. The addition of lime water 
either before or after the water has been boiled, is 
quickly followed by a white flaky precipitate, de- 
tecting carbonic acid gas in the first instance, and 
magnesia in the second. The carbonic acid is very 
loosely combined with the water. The gas flies off 
soon after it is taken up from the spring, and is 
chiefly, if not altogether employed in suspending 
the iron and carbonate of lime. The nitro-muriate of 
platina and tartaric acid do not disturb the tran- 
sparency of the water. Concentrated sulphuric acid 
causes an effervescence, which is more perceptible 
after the water has stood for a few minutes. It dis- 
engages the fixed air in combination with the lime. 



and renders the water milky. After some hours a 
aedimeut ensues, and it again becomes clear, when 
the muriatic salts will be found partially decompo- 
sed. A few drops of the nitric, or muriatic acids 
preserve tire water in its natural limpidity, and ac- 
celerate the escape of air bubbles. 



As mineral waters contain many substances that 
cannot be detected by means of re-agents or tests, 
the process of evaporation is employed for the pur- 
pose of discovering the whole of their solid ingre- 
dients, and of ascertaining their dilFerent propor- 
tions. When the rock water is boiled in a glass 
vessel it becomes turbid throughout, and of a brown- 
ish colour; the pellicle that incrusts its surface is 

♦ The evaporations innBt be conducted cither in irlass or 
Wedgewood ware basons; for the nature of the waters is mate- 
rially altered by the common’ earthen iitensils. The difterent 
precipitates were carefully dried at the uniform heat of 2 l£o ; 
the filtering paper used was unsized ; the mineral acids were 
remarkably pure, and every precaution was iaken to render the 
cKperiinents conclusive and correct. The muriatic acid was of 
the specific gravity 1170, and in the experiments alluded to, 
dilute with twice its weight of distilled water. 


Llandrindod Wells, 

— p g - 

more perfectly formed ; the carbonic acid is driven 
off, and the iron and carbonated earths are precipi- 
tated. When the process of evaporation is carefully 
conducted at a gentle heat, the solid contents of the 
water may be obtained. The muriates of lime and 
magnesia will be seen forming circles or waves 
round the sides of the bason, while the iron and 
carbonate of lime, confusedly intermixed with cubic 
crystals of muriate of soda, will be found at the 
bottopi. The salts procured, have an acrid and 
bitter taste ; decrepitate when thrown on hot coals, 
but do deflagrate with charcoal ; deliquesce rapidly 
on exposure to the atmosphere, and at a red heat 
fuse into an imperfect glass, which when cold again 
attracts moisture from the air. After the addition 
of vitriolic acid they evolve pungent fumes of mu- 
riatic acid gas, which becomes visible on the ap- 
proach of those of ammonia. A wine gallon of the 
water was reduced by evaporation to half a pint, and 
the ferruginous precipitate collected and dried at 
2120, weighed 11 grains ; it evervesced with cold 
muriatic acid, and was partially dissolved. The 
metallic oxyd was not attracted by the magnet either 
before or after it had been exposed to a red heat. 



being melted with pure nitrate of potash, no trace 
of mangnnese could be discovered. A wine gallon 
of the water was evaporated to dryness at a tempera- 
ture far below the boiling point ; the fixed princi- 
ples were dried at ‘212o, and weighed 856.75 grains. 

A. The 356.75 grains were digested in 1000 
grains of highly rectified spirits of wine for twelve 
hours ; the solution was frequently agitated, filtered, 
and the undissolved residue washed with a little fresh 
spirit ; the alcohol having dissolved the muriates of 
lime and magnesia, the remaining portion was dried 
at 212", and weighed 251 grains. 

B. The 251 grains were digested for 24 hours in 
12 oz. of cold distilled water ; the mixture was fre- 
quently stirred with a glass rod, and separated from 
the insoluble matter, which was well washed with 
distilled water, dried at 212®, and weighed 11 grains. 

C. The ferruginous precipitate was moistened 
with water and exposed to the sun’s rays for six 
weeks, when it acquired oxygen, which rendered 
the iron insoluble in acetid acid. 


Llandrindod Wells, 


A, Muriates of lime aud magnesia 105.75 

B. Muriate of soda 240 

C. Ferruginous precipitate 11 


A, a. The spirituous solution was evaporated to 
dryness, and the muriatic salts decomposed by the 
addition of half their weight of concentrated sul- 
phuric acid. The excess of acid was expelled by an 
increase of temperature, which was continued until 
pungent fumes ceased to arise. The two sulphates 
were separated by cold distilled water, which dis- 
solved the sulphate of magnesia, and left the sul- 
phate of lime untouched; the latter was washed with 
a fresh portion of water, and boiled for fifteen mi- 
nutes in three times its weight of carbonate of pot- 
ash ; the sulphate of potash was washed off, and the 
carbonate of lime formed, saturated with pure muri- 
atic acid, diluted with a small quantity of distilled 
water. The muriate of lime was dried at 21 2o, and 
weighed 57 grains. 

h. This being deducted from 105.75, leaves for 
the muriate of magnesia 48.75 grains. 

B. a. The aqueous solution, which contained 



only muriate of soda, was reduced to dryness at a 
degree of heat between 80<J and 90o; the residuum 
was dried at 212®, and weighed 239 grains. 

C. a. The ferruginous precipitate was digested 
in 240 grains of pure acetic acid for twelve hours ; 
the insoluble matter was washed with distilled wa- 
ter, dried at 212“, and weighed 7.5 grains. 


b. This residuum was boiled in diluted muriatic 
acid for twenty minutes, and left undissolved 1.33 
grain, of a light-coloured substance, which became 
perfectly white ou exposure to a red heat, and was 
found to consist of silex. 

c. This being deducted from 7.5, leaves 6.17 
grains for the carbonate of iron. 

d. The acetic solution which had dissolved car- 
bonate of lime, was neutralized with crystalized 
carbonate of potash, and the precipitate collected, 
washed, and dried at 212“, weighed 3.4 grains. 
According to this analysis, a wine gallon of the 
rock water contains, of 


Llandrindod Wells, 


a. Muriate of lime 57 

b magnesia 48.75 

B. a soda 239 

C, a. d. Carbonate of lime or chalk .... 3.4 

b. Silex or flint 1.33 

c. Carbonate of iron 6.17 


Loss in the different processes, chiefly 

muriate of soda 1,1 

Total 356.75 


A glass flask, which, with its syphon, contained 
exactly sixteen ounces and two drachms, was com- 
pletely filled with the fresh water, and gradually 
heated by means of a spirit lamp ; upon the first 
impression of the heat, the water expanded ; the 
two drachms contained in the syphon were suflfered 
to escape, and deducted from the results of the ex- 
periment ; the boiling temperature was continued 
for four hours, when the whole of the gas was ex- 
tricated, and being received over mercury, when the 
barometer stood at 29o.8, and the thermometer at 
58o, amounted to 1.375 cubic inch, or, for the total 
quantity of gas, per gallon, 11 cubic inches. The 




1.375 being submitted to the action of lime water, 
the carbonic acid gas was absorbed, and afterwards 
to a solution of green sulphate of iron saturated 
with nitrous gas, no diminution of bulk appeared at 
the expiration of six hours ; but the remaining gas 
extinguished a lighted taper, and possessed the cha- 
racters of azote ; and as the results of the several 
examinations, the following proportioijs were ob- 
tained, of 

Carbonic acid , or fixed air 0.775 

Azotic gas, or nitrogen 0-60 


or, per gallon, of 

Carbonic acid 

Cubic inches, 




The slate rock, the nature of which has been 
described, is in many places stained of an ochery 
appearance, and from one of these a small spring 
rises, guttatim ; from its scarcity, or from a suppo- 
sition that it was stronger than the rock water, it 
was vulgarly called the brandy drops. I caused a 
small well to be dug in the rock, and examined the 


Llandrindod Wells, 

water with various re-agents. Tincture of galls 
instantly occasioned a fine pink, but did not, upon 
long standing, acquire a dark purple hue*. Syrup 
of violets produced a deep grass green. Oxalate of 
ammonia indicated lime. Nitrate of silver detected 
muriatic acid; acetate of lead and nitrate of barytes, 
denoted the absence of sulphur and sulphuric acid ; 
sulphuric acid rendered the water turbid, and dis- 
engaged a few bubbles of air; the temperature of 
the well was ,55o . Upon evaporating a wine pint, I 
obtained a residuum of 44 grains ; or, in the propor- 
tion of 352 grains of solid contents in the gallon. 
The quantity of salt contained in a gallon, is equal 
to that of the rock water ; but it is by no means 
so strong a chalybeate. A comparative statement 
of the proportion of foreign ingredients procured 
from a gallon of the rock water. 


la July, 1816, ipecific gravity 1009 356.75 

In Sept, ditto ditto ditto 356.75 

In June, 1817, ditto 1005 328.” 

* The tome remark was made by Dr. Linden. 



To enlarge this analysis by adding Dr. I.inden’s 
experiments would swell this work very unnecessa- 
rily ; however, their amount may be given in a very 
brief space. 

“ From what has been said, we may safely conclude that the 
rock water of Llandrindod contains) 

1, A rery g^reat plenty of cetherial) elastic, volatile, mineral, 

t. A mineral balsam of the amber kind, which is combined 
with the before mentioned volatile spirits, and the iron 

S. A volatile vitriolic acid. 

4. A large and sufficient quantity of ferruginous contents. 

5. A perfect sulphur. 

6. A neutral purging salt, participating of the nature of borax. 

7. The common vehicle, water. So that this water is a perfect 
purgative chalybeate, excellently well impregnated with 
other salutary mixtures, so as to become one of the f^yst 
sovereign remedies, and safe even in the most enfeebled 


Llandrindod Wells, 



This water, in general, is good in all such chronic 
cases as proceed from a lax fibre, or a weakness of 
the vascular system ; and is particularly to be re- 
commended when the disease is situated in the most 
remote parts of the human machine, whither it is 
difficult, or next door to an impossibility, to convey 
the ordinary shop medicines. In scorbutic erup- 
tions that proceed from a feebleness in the vis vitse. 
In weak nerves. In the periodical asthma, whether 
humoral or spasmodical. In St. Vitus’s dance. 
In palsies, whether partial or total; whether from a 
resolution of the part, or a poverty, or vicidity in 
the juices. In a general debility, or weakness of 
any particular member; whether it be the result of 
a paralytic disorder, or remain after the cure of an 
apoplexy. In epilepsies, when other remedies have 
proved unsuccessful. In agues, that have baffled 
the administration of the bark. In weakness left 
after a fever. In some erratic, slow nervous fevers. 
In all diseases incident to the fair sex ; the fluor 



albus ; inflations of the stomach, and hypochondria; 
and all the various symptoms that come under the 
denomination of the hysteric passion. In weak 
bowels. In flushings, or redness of the face. In 
all obstructions. In a seminal weakness of both 
sexes.” In conclusion of a long article under the 
head of “ Chronical Disorders that proceed from 
a laxity, or a weakness in the fibres; and of obstruct 
tions consequent thereon,” which, wandering far 
from, and then returning to, the immediate point, 
the Doctor continues. “ It is certain that in these 
cases other compositions will be of little service, 
because a medicine is required consisting of extreme 
volatile parts, of a penetrating nature, capable of 
pervading the minutest ducts, and of attacking the 
stagnating juices in the inmost recesses of their 
lurking holes ; and yet, at the same time this me- 
dicine must be so mild, and of so benign a nature, 
as to be divested of all pungent acrimony. Its ac- 
tive parts must be sheathed and enveloped by a soft 
diluting vehicle, stored with volatile mineral princi- 
ples. For the tender fabric, debilitated frame, and 
irritable nerve, will not bear the vellications of a 
rough acrid. But alas ! such a one as I . am speaking 


Llandrindod Wells, 

of, is not to be found amongst the inventions or 
productions of art. But Providence, it seems, has 
furnished us with such a specific in these kinds of 
chalybeate waters; and what the same all-ruling 
Power has denied us in the pursuit of art, he has 
given us here. For the volatile, setherial, elastic, 
spirits are the very remedies we want in these cases, 
as they quickly pervade the smallest passages, and 
introduce their own vehicle, the water, replete with 
salts. The one to soften and dilute the obstructing 
matter, the other to scour the glands and secretory 
ducts from all filth and dregs; whilst, at the same 
time, the debilitated frame and relaxed vessels are 
strengthened by the chalybeate contents, the nerves 
exhilarated, and the spirits raised, by the setherial 
ones. In disorders of the same nature, but proceed- 
ing from an opposite cause, where the stagnant 
matter is sizey, the blood rich, and the elastic force 
of the vessels strong, these waters will have a quite 
opposite efi'cct with their astringent qualities ; for 
by contracting the capacities of the tubes they rivet 
and fix the obstructing matter in its seat, instead of 
discharging it ; and hence an innumerable train of 
disorders would be the fatal consequences of taking 



la all disorders where this water is beneficial, I 
aiust, once for all, recommend the drinking of it as 
near the fountain-head as possible. For as the other 
contents entirely depend upon the aetherial, volatile, 
elastic, spirits, when these are evaporated, no suc- 
cess can reasonably be expected from them, unless 
the purging quality be the only thing required, as 
in some gross habits where a plenitude is only to 
be carried oflF.” 

“ In scorbutic eruptions, that proceed from a plen- 
itude of the serum, or watery part of the blood, the 
rock water is to be made use of, preferable to any 
other. For the saline, scorbutic, or pump water 
would cool too much ; and by emptying the vessels 
too fast, would reduce the blood into its pristine state_ 
of poverty. Besides, a deobstruent is wanted to 
open the excretory ducts, and clear the skin, by 
attenuating the matter which caused the disorder ; 
80 that, for more than one reason this water, in this 
case, is to be made choice of. 

All the scorbutic disorders, which are incident to 
poor people, who live chiefly upon vegetables, milk, 
cheese, and salt butter, are of this class, and there- 
fore this rock water is, in a particular manner, to be 


Llandrindod V/ells, 

recommended to them. This species of scurvy is a 
kind of endemical disease in these mountainous 
countries. I have had many cases of this sort under 
my hands, and have found them ever obstinate, 
which is greatly owing to the patients themselves, 
who neglect the means of relief too long. The me- 
dicine most in vogue at present for it, is the sea- 
water ; but I have experienced the saline chalybeate 
water far beyond it. One thing I can’t help re- 
marking, which is, that the patients never go for 
relief but in summer, and by those means greatly 
neglect themselves ; for many might be relieved in 
the winter as well as summer; and the winter sea- 
son would be more proper for some than the sum- 
mer. Let us but consider, that all orders of men in 
this great metropolis, during the most busy time of 
their vocation, the winter, breathe in too great a 
plenty of moist, vapid, unelastic, air. It is at this 
season the senator is engaged in his country’s ser- 
vice; the lawyer pleads the cause of his clients; the 
priest is more fully employed in his functions ; the 
merchant quits the country air ; the shopkeeper is 
more confined ; besides, in most of the different em- 
ploys the lungs and organs of the breast not only 



bave the greatest stress laid on them, bnt likewise 
are the first and most immediately afiected by the 
moisture, pressure, and other properties of the at- 
mosphere, So that it is no wonder we meet with so 
many asthmatic complaints amongst all conditions 
and ranks of men. And the same reason that teach- 
es us that this is the cause of their complaint, will 
leach us that that must be the fittest remedy, which 
lubricates the passages, attenuates and dilutes the 
affecting matter, thins the blood, discharges its ex- 
crementitious qualities, and strengthens the part. 
It is agreed on all hands, that a palsy may ensue 
from a relaxed state of the solids ; but let it proceed 
from whatsoever cause possible, the saline chaly- 
beate waters that are endowed with plenty of volatile, 
aetherial, elastic, spirits, for ages past, have signa- 
lized themselves as the most sovereign remedies. In 
an epilepsy, where the usual remedies prove ineffec- 
tual, we may take it for granted that the whole, or 
greatest part of the vascular system is choaked, or 
clogged with the morbid matter ; wherefore reme- 
dies are required to penetrate the inmost recesses of 
the human body ; but as yet we have not been able 



Llandrindod Wells, 

to obtain such by art we must therefore have re- 

t • • 

course to nature and her valuable productions con- 
tained in these waters. In agues, where the bark 
proves ineffectual, we lie under an indispensible 
obligation to make use of such remedies as are ape- 
ritive, as well as astringent; and as we cannot but 
acknowledge the imperfect art of chemical pharma- 
cy, we must have recourse to Nature’s alembic. 
Debility after fevers is very common in these 
Northern climates, and sometimes brought on either 
by unskilful evacuations, or by a neglect in purging 
off the morbific matter, which lays a foundation for 
innumerable disorders, that if tampered with, often 
prove dangerous. But this remedy, these waters, 
out of Nature’s dispensatory, has legitimated itself, 
as safe and effectual. 

We have observed, that alentor in the fluids, 
and a surcharge of humours upon the viscera, are 
the cause of the hysteric passion. The watery ve- 
hicle, therefore will serve to dilute it ; the saline to 
attenuate and discharge it : and as no part can be 
overstretched, or overloaded, without being weak- 
ened, the chalybeate contents will strengthen, and, 
by that means prevent a return of the fits. 



In all kind of obstructions, wheresoever seated, 
as well as in a debility of any particular part, this 
rock-water is an excellent remedy. But to enume- 
rate all disorders consequent thereon, or those inci- 
dent to the fair sex in particular, would swell this 
treatise into too large a bulk. 

In diseases that depend not on a debilitated frame, 
I should be unwilling to recommend this water. 
Where there is a tense fibre ; dense, rich blood ; or, 
in constitutions that are otherwise distinguished 
with the epithets hot, adust or bilious; it will cer- 
tainly prove prejudicial. For as by stretching the 
string of a fiddle too much you will probably break 
it ; so, from overbracing the fibres of the human 
body, dangerous consequences will ensue. 

The same caution is necessary with regard to age; 
for it is not a fit medicine at all times and stages 
of life. Let us but consider that the longer we 
lire, the fewer blood-vessels we retain in our bodies, 
and that the fibres become stiff, and loose in their 
spring or force, so as to be unable, from their too 
great rigidity, to give sufficient motion to the juices. 
This stiffness would be increased by the cohesive 


Llandrindod Wells, 

contractiug power of the chalybeate contents. We 
may therefore conclude (allowances being made for 
the diiference of temperaments) that this water is 
utterly to be avoided after 50 or 60 years of age. 



Few mineral waters that we are acquainted with, 
in this or any other country, contain so large a pro- 
portion of iron and when we consider that the most 
active form in which this metal can be exhibited as 
a medicine, is in the state of solution by carbonic 
acid gas,, the greatest advantages may be expected 
from the use of the rock water. The gas is disen- 
gaged during the process of solution in the stomach, 
and exerts its immediate effects on the nervous sys- 
tem. Carbonic acid, although fatal to animal life, 
when respired, may be drank in small quantities 
with perfect safety; it acts as a general stimulus to 
the nerves, and often occasions symptoms similar to 
those which follow an immoderate use of vinous or 
spirituous liquors : persons, therefore, who are 
.subject to a fulness of the vessels of the head, 
should be careful to avoid the use of all fermented 



beverages. Carbonate acid has been found parti- 
cularly soothing to irritable surfaces; it is abun- 
dantly produced in the different operations of Nature, 
and while oxygen supports the respiration of ani- 
mals, this gas enters into the structure of vegetables, 
and a variety of calcarious spars, lime-stones, &c. 
All waters that contain iron, suspended by carbonic 
acid gas, have more or less of an astringent quality. 
They quicken the pulse and increase the florid co- 
lour of the blood. They exhilirate the spirits, 
promote the appetite, and cause a sensible determina- 
tion to the skin and kidneys. They constringe and 
strengthen the muscular fibres of living animals, and 
are often used with success in removing general de- 
bility, and in restoring the tone of the alimentary 
canal. The influence of azote as a medicine has 
never been ascertained. It is found plentifully in the 
waters of Bath, Buxton, and Harrowgate, and may 
exert some useful power that we are hitherto un- 
acquainted with. To the silex I cannot impute any 
medicinal virtues, although it has been suggested 
by Dr. Gibbs, who discovered it in the Bath waters, 
to assist materially in their general effect. The 
carbonate of lime will afford great relief in correct- 


Llandrindop Wells, 

ing the acidity of the stomach, so often productire 
of the hearUburn. The saline principles of the wa- 
ter are very considerable, and require particular 
attention in a medical point of view, as the dose of 
the water must in some measure be proportioned to 
their action on the bowels. The muriate of soda, 
or common salt, is one of the most important arti- 
cles in domestic economy ; it acts as a stimulus to 
the whole body, and has been found useful in some 
cases of dyspepsia. It forms the principal ingre- 
dient in a stimulating bath, and may, by the irrita- 
tion that it excites, produce a new action in the 
skin. The analysis of these waters clears up any 
doubt thct may remain with regard to the aperient 
qualities of lime and magnesia, for as they contain 
no other purging salts, the effects which they pro- 
duce on the bowels must be attributed to the earthly 
muriates. Dr. Saunders, when speaking of the 
earthly muriates, remarks 

“ That the power which they ma^ possess of acthj» on the 
Intestinal canal is not quite uscertaiiied ; but from their great 
solubilitvj and from analogy with salts of a similar nature, we 
may, I think, conclude, that this forms a principal part of tUeir 

And that his opinion was correct, may be fully 
illustrated by the effects of the Llandrindod waters. 



The muriate of lime has a disagreeable bitter taste. 
It is found in a variety of salt springs, and in the 
waters of the Dead Sea. It has been recommended 
in scrophulous and glandular diseases, and in cases 
of general debility : in an over-dose it has excited 
“ qualms and sickness, and has been known to 
destroy dogs.” The property of this salt in' gene- 
rating intense cold during its solution, or when 
mixed with snow, has also been applied to medical 
use. The muriate of magnesia is not uncommon ; it 
possesses a very bitter hot taste, and is the salt that 
gives the bitteniess to sea water. A pint of sea 
water contains about 51 grains of muriate of mag- 
nesia, and this quantity, combined with about 186 
and I grains of common salt, is a sufficient dose for 
the generality of patients ; we may then safely as- 
cribe no inconsiderable purgative qualities to this 
salt. The sensible effects of the rock water are 
those of a powerful tonic ; it invigorates the 
languid constitutiony and improves the system 
that has been injured by long and continued 
exertion. The water will be found beneficial in all 
cases of an universal langour and weakness, that 
proceed from a relaxation of the stomach and of the 


Llandrindod Wells, 

fibres in general ; in relaxed, gross habits ; in some 
species of the lepra ; and, other cutaneous diseases, 
which depend on debility. The herpetic affections 
here alluded to, are those that are accompanied with 
a dry and scaly appearance of the skin, dispersed 
over the surface of the body in reddish patches, and 
which are most frequently cured by alterative and 
tonic medicines ; in hysteria, and hypochondriasis ; 
in the flnor albus and gleets ; in spasmodic disorders 
arising from a weak and irritable state of the nerves; 
and in those obstructions which most frequently 
disturb the healthy functions of the female consti- 
tution. It may be employed in such asthmatic 
disorders, and chronic coughs, as originate from a 
relaxation of the pulmonary vessels : but here, some 
discrimination will be necessary, and its use must 
be cautiously regulated. This water has been found 
particularly serviceable during the time that it was 
drank, in relieving the symptoms that indicated a 
morbid affection of the lungs, accompanied with 
cough, and purulent expectoration, when unattend- 
ed by hectic fever. In such cases I have known it 
check the discharge of pus, and contribute much to 
the comfort of the patient. In weak and irritable 



habits, where the pulse was remarkably quick, the 
water has been observed to reduce its frequency, 
and to increase its strength. Its use should be 
carefully avoided in full and plethoric habits, before 
the body has been cooled by proper evacuations, 
especially if there is any determination of blood to 
the head or chest : in cases of confirmed obstruc- 
tions attended with fever ; or even when local con- 
gestion exists without fever; in chronic inflammation 
of the liver, and hot bilious habits ; but “ chaly- 
beaies may be used to advantage, with the view of 
giving that tone and energy to the system, so very 
defective in cases of jaundice.” In calculous com- 
plaints, when 'the stone owes its formation to the 
uric acid, and is accompanied with ulceration of the 
bladder and a <lischarge of matter, the water may be 
employed ; but I would not recommend it when the 
stone is composed of lime or magnesia, as it might 
tend to increase the disposition to the disease : nei- 
ther would it be proper to advise the water in dia- 
betes ; because in the healthy state of the body it 
increases the excretion of urine; but in rickets and 
mollities ossium, where there is great debility and 

a deficiency of lime, the water may deserve a trial. 

H 2 


Llandrindod Wells, 

In chlorosis, from the active form in which the iron 
exists in the rock water, the roost decided advantage 
may be expected. 

“ Chlorosis is a disease aecompanied with a diminution of the 
quantity and activity of the bile, preceded by affections of the 
stomach ; such as loss of appetite, iadi§^estioD, and flatulent 

Dr. Saunders further observes, that 

“ If we were to point out one disorder which above all otiiers 
received benefit from mineral waters, it would probably be thisj 
even at the time that the feverish irritation which always sub- 
sists, the head-ache, and frequent dyspnma, might seem to 
forbid its use. This, however, appears a striking exception to 
the general rules for treating complaints attended w'ith fever, 
since it is found that chlorosis even in its inveterate stage, where 
not actually accompanied by the inflammatory symptoms, that 
precede any internal suppuration, will almost always bear, and 
be the better for, every kind of ehalybeate medicine. “In this 
complaint the strictest attention must be paid to the diet j it 
should consist principally of animal food ; the influence of which, 
in producing a rich blood and increased secretion of bile, is 
amply proved by daily experience ; together with the careful 
avoidance of all vegetable acids, which diminish the red glo- 
bules of the blood, and by destroying the activity of the bile, 
bring on a pale, exsauguineous, complexion.” * 

Tlie warm bath has been strongly recommended 
by Hoffman ; and most authors have concurred with 
him in bearing testimony to the good effects which 
follow its use in cases of chlorosis : it should there- 
fore be had recourse to, until the patient is able to 
overcome the sedative effects occasioned by a sudden 

♦ Saunders on the Liver, 



submersion in cold water; when the tepid, or cold 
bath, will be found more invigorating remedies. 
The rock water proves extremely serviceable in 
debility of the uterine vessels, which, if neglected, 
produces obstructions and sterility in females. It 
is likewise sometimes employed to restrain preter- 
natural evacuations from the womb, to give strength 
to the extremities of the debilitated vessels ; but 
with regard to an increased discharge of the menses, 
the water should not be allowed, when it is attended 
with febrile symptoms; and it should be remarked, 
that it is in those diseases which arise from general 
debility, and are unassociated with any organic de- 
fect, where the water promises to afford the hap- 
piest effects. 


Llandrindod Wells, 



The patient’s own observations are by no means 
to be disregarded ; for every one that has some lime 
laboured under any chronic disease, is, in some 
measure, a judge of his own case, particularly of 
such things as agree or disagree with him, which 
together with every other article he can recollect 
appertaining to himself, he ought to impart to the 
physician he consults, so as to enable him to form a 
just idea of his disease. The next thing that comes 
under our consideration, is, whether the patient 
ought to lose blood or not. If it should be thought 
requisite, the vein ought to be opened three or four 
days before he enters upon his intended course, and 
unless something forbids it, the day after his arrival, 
because we may suppose the blood after the journey 
to be somewhat inflamed; in which state we may 
always expect greater fruits from the operation, be- 
cause then the circulation is more rapid than in a 
state of ease and repose. 



• The subjects fk for bleeding' are such as have a 
natural tendency to generate rich blood. Such as 
are accustomed to high feeding, or the use of cordi- 
als and spirituous liquors to revive their drooping 
spirits, and who lead an inactive sedentai-y life. 
These last, in particular, have occasion to lose blood, 
and that in a sufficient quantity in order to make 
room for the waters, disburthen the viscera, and 
cause a free and easy circulation. 

Where the case is the reverse ; where there is po- 
verty of the juices, where the vis energiae and tex- 
ture of the blood is destroyed, as it is in leucopleg- 
matic habits, or in such as have a tendency to the 
dropsy, bleeding must be omitted, and in its stead 
must be substituted purging with the saline spring, 
commonly called the pump-water; which in this case, 
must be taken upon an empty stomach, at repeated 
doses, in small glasses, each glass not containing 
more than a quarter of a pint, to which a tea spoon- 
ful or two of rum, brandy, or carmelite water may 
be added. Five or six of these portions must be 
swallowed in bed, or in the room, in the space of two 
hours, more or less, according as they operate, or 
in proportion to the idiosyncracy of the patient. 


Llandrindod Wells, 

two or three purging motions being sufficient. 
This method must be persisted in, for the space' of 
three or four days, which will be a fit preparation 
for a course of the rock-water. But those with 
whom the pump-water does not agree, may take the 
rock-water, if they let it stand in an open bottle for 
the space of eight or ten hours, that the chalybeate 
contents may evaporate ; when it will prove a proper 
purge and answer the above mentioned purpose, and 
may be taken by itself, or with rum or brandy, as 
ordered with the pump-water. 

Experience has furnished the republic of physic 
with many shop compositions, as fit preparatives for 
a course of chalybeate waters ; but as these are quite 
unnecessary at Llandrindod, where we have such 
choice of these natural evacuants, I will omit speak- 
ing of them, especially, as I think these have great- 
ly the pre-eminence to any met with even in our 
modern pharmacopaeiae. 

Bathing the feet is of such consequence, that, to 
some habits, even that alone Is an excellent prepara- 
tive; indeed, itought not to be forgotten or omitted 
during the whole course of drinking the water; as it 



greatly revives and refreshes some sluggish spasmodic 
habits, gives the blood a more free, easy, and unin- 
terrupted, circulation, adds some elastic force to the 
vessels, which they greatly stand in need of ; causes 
a revulsion ; relieves the head ; empties the hypo- 
chondria; takes off those oppressions which adisturb- 
ed and uneven circulation occasions, and which 
bring in those terrors, those anxieties, those fright- 
ful dreams, and that oppressive langour, incident to 
some that labour under hypochondriacal affections ; 
and, by making tire body easy, disposes to sleep ; 
during which time perspiration, and the other animal 
functions, proceed regularly. Hence, away is paved 
for the waters ; which, without interruption, often- 
times may enter upon their office ; and the mortal 
fabric is capacitated to receive what will correct and 
discharge the morbific matter by the secretory and 
excretory ducts. Since, by experience, we are con- 
vinced that bathing the feet has this salutary effect, 
we do not only recommend it as a preparative before 
drinking the water, but also as an aid and assistant 
during the whole time of taking. As a preparative, 
it is to be used three or four evenings successively 
just before going to bed ; and as gn assistant about 

Llandrindod Wells, 

twice a week. This bath is no more than to make 
the saline pump-water hot and to infuse into it some 
cephalic herbs. 



At the commencement of a course of the rock 
water, some preparation will generally be required ; 
the patient should pay particular attention to his 
stomach and bowels, for when they are not properly 
evacuated, several inconvenient sensations very fre- 
quently arise: the water is then apt to disagree, and 
occasions vomiting, fulness of the head, and uneasy 
distention of the stomach and bowels. In some 
cases it has been known to produce convulsions, and 
I have more than once seen a considerable bleeding 
excited from the nose, when no precautionary mea- 
sures had been taken. “The purest waters will in 
certain habits, especially the debilitated, occasion 
some degree of vertigo and determination of blood 
to the head, when first drank, which usually go off 
in a few days but when these symptoms come on 
during the use pf the rock water, they should be 
removed by appropriate medicines before it is per- 



severed in. W’ ith regard to general blood-lettiog, 
I am of opinion, that wherever it will be thought 
necessary, the rock water ought not to be employed, 
and the patient would probably be most benehtted 
by a course of the saline water. During the summer 
months, the country people who resort to this 
spring, are in the habit of drinking from twenty to 
thirty half pints in a morning before breakfast, 
without feeling any inconvenience : when drank in 
such immoderate quantities, the ill effects which 
follow an overdose are prevented by its operation on 
the bowels ; but those happy results which follow a 
more judicial use of the water, are not produced on 
the constitution. It is of the greatest importance 
that the water should be drank immediately upon 
being drawn from the spring; but should the pa- 
tient be prevented from going to the spot by the 
inclemency of the weather, or any other cause, its 
qualities will be best preserved by carrying it in a 
bottle, closely corked, with the neck downwards, at 
a low temperature ; the gas then ascends to the up- 
per part of the vessel, and is not so liable to be lost. 
The water will not, however even in the closest 
•topped phials retain its virtues long, for the iron is 


Llandrindod Wells, 

soon precipitated from its solvent, and left in a com- 
paratively inert state. The coldness of the water 
will in many cases have a salutary influence, and 
contribute much to the warmth and general glow 
experienced by the patient after a dose of the water, 
which may depend very much on the re-action that 
succeeds the impressions made on the stomach in 
the same manner as when cold is applied to the 
surface of the body, for it i^ well known that a glass 
of cold spring water will often produce a sensation 
of heat and perspiration upon the skin ; and as the 
water cannot be made warm without destroying its 
active properties, those persons whose stomachs are 
incapable of retaining the fresh water, may combine 
a little spirits of cinnamon or nutmeg with it, until 
they have gained sufflcient strength to overcome the 
nausea and sickness occasioned by the cold water. 
The aromatic tinctures which are generally recom- 
mended for this purpose, contain an astringent 
principle which decomposes the iron, and must 
therefore be considered as improper additions. Since 
the rock water cannot always be taken with safety, 
in such large quantities as to act decidedly on the 
bowels, costiveness sometimes attends its use, and 



in these cases the saline water should be drank two 
or three times a week, so as to keep the bowels 
open ; or the rock water itself may be employed 
for this purpose, after its gaseous principles have 
been suftered to exhale ; I should, however, prefer 
the saline water, because it will be found more 
grateful to the palate. 



When the patient is prepared, after the manner 
above laid down, he may venture upon a course of 
drinking the waters, wliich must be done at the 
spring-head, because tlie volatile chalybeate con- 
tents exhak, ^ost as taken out of the spa: 

* Iq BDOther part of his work, the Doctor gives the following- 
necessary caution.— “To vomit at the commencement of drink- 
iiiff this water is very common to tliose whose stomachs are full 
of slimy matter, or bilious impurities ; it generally continues 
three or four davs successively, each paj-oxism being lighter 
and easier than tlie preceding. The patient by the evacuation, 
acnnires strength, vigour, and liveliness ; It then desists of its 
own accord, but if the contrary happens, proper remedies must 
be made use of. Alkaline salts, nitre, or the pump wate^ along 
with some warm, bitter, aromatic tincture, have the pre- 
cmiuenoe. This water is not naturally emetic, and this sponta- 
neous evacuation is often more beneficial than ou£ precutfid by 
art. Sometimes, indeed, vomits are requisite,” 


Llandrindod Wells, 

even at so short a carriage as ten or twelve yards. 
I am well aware that it will be here objected, that 
some weak, tender constitutions can hardly bear the 
air, much less rain. To this I answer that if they 
will reap the full fruit and advantage attainable, 
they lie under an indispensible necessity of running 
the risk ; and therefore must guard against the dan- 
ger in the best manner they can, by warm cloathing; 
by riding on horseback; or if too violent an exercise, 
they may go in a sedan, or any other convenient 


The time of drinking should be before breakfast, 
from six to nine o’clock, according as the weather 
will permit. But as these kinds of waters are in 
their utmost perfection before the sun gains any 
ascendency, 1 would recommend them to be taken 
as early as possible ; even before seven or eight 
o’clock, if the patient can rise so early. We should 
repair from our lodging to the spring with as much 
ease as possible to ourselves, that we may be per- 
fectly cool when we come thither. But there are 

• The reader will observe, Mr. B. Williams, a few pagei on, 

S estg another mode of acoommodatiog sickly patients, on 
an emergency. 



• U . ■ ~ ^ — ■ ' ■ .ZLm' " ' " JUft ; 

some patients so weak and feeble, that the least 
motion causes perspiration, such, should be con* 
reyed in a sedan, coach, or on horseback. As soon 
as their strength eucreases, gentle walking will be 
preferable to a vehicle. Tlie water tastes more 
agreeably after such exercise, and in this motion, 
the action of the muscles presses upon the blood 
vessels, and glandular strainers ; whence we may 
promise ourselves a more successful, certain, and 
prosperous, effect. The quantity taken, each morn- 
ing, ought never to exceed a quart, or three pints, 
and to this the patient must ascend by degrees. 
The glasses should contain no more than one quar- 
ter of a pint, so that one quart may be taken in two 
hours. The first day, the patient should begin with 
three, and so add one every day, till they amount 
to eight, which must be drank in the space of two 
hours as before observed. About an hour before 
dinner, it would not be amiss to visit the fountain 
again, and take a draught of the water, which ought 
never to exceed two glasses ; and about bed-time 
two glasses more should be taken : But the chaly- 
beate contents of this nocturnal dose should be suf- 
fered to evaporate, as it is intended to keep the body 


Llandrindod Wells, 

soluble. I most earnestly entreat the visitors not 
to venture upon too large a dose, such rashness has 
often been, and may again be, attended with fatal 
consequences. Proofs, grounded upon experimental 
and anatomical basis, shew that immoderate quanti> 
ties of water^mUst be highly detrimental, both to 
the large and small vessels of the viscera. Overload 
a close vessel, or barrel, with common water, you 
will find, by agitation and close confinement of its 
contents, you will cause it to burst. Can we then 
reasonably expect any other effect from a water that 
is impregnated with elastic spirits, which, on the 
slightest agitation will break any vessel which it is 
contained in? Therefore, by drinking too much, the 
very intent of relieving is frustrated. It stands war- 
ranted upon the same foundation, that smaller doses 
of water operate more speedily and securely than 
large ones, as they more easily insinuate themselves 
into the capacities of the fibres, and intermix with 
the fluids, when gradually taken. I think there is 
an absolute necessity of drinking the waters cold. 
For my part, I fairly and ingenuously confess, 1 can- 
not hit upon any method of giving it warm, and at 
the same time, of preserving its volatile, setherial. 



miueral spirits, although I have attempted it io ma- 
ny shapes ; therefore must content myself with ad- 
vising every one who consults his welfare, to drink 
it cold. The weak, the lean, the phlegmatic, and 
such as are subject to hypochondriac disorders, 
whose stomachs are chilled by cold liquors, should 
mix some carmelite-water, tincture of orange peel, 
cardamons, or such like, or a little rum or brandy 
with it. These will make it agreeable to their sto- 
machs, and its use will so invigorate them, that 
they will soon become in a fit condition to drink, 
and bear it with ease, without any other mixture. 
In many cases these waters may be mixed with an 
equal quantity of milk, by which they will, in an 
eminent manner be improved in their efficacy; par- 
ticularly in such scurvies, and scrophulous disorders 
before mentioned. The milk here, not only sweet- 
ens and corrects the acrimonious juices, but also 
nourishes and enriches the blood, and thus assists 
the medical contents of the water. Hoffman has 
notonly observed this property, in these cases, buthas, 
with equal success, administered it after the same 
manner, in the gout. Whatever is mixed with this 
water must first be put in the glass, and the chaly- 


Llandrindod Wells, 

beate water received upon it. These waters may 
also be assisted with other medical aids, according 
to the advice of the prescriber.* They should never 
be used without gentle exercise between each 


draught. Those who are able should walk, and those 
that ride must use a little of that exercise ; and those 
that come in a sedan should order the glasses to be 
opened, and be carried about for some time, that 
they may breathe as much of the clear air of Llan- 
drindod as possible. Mineral waters require a par- 
ticular and exact regimen; the most simple food is 
the most proper, all kinds of fresh meats, as well as 
fish, dressed plain. I would entreat every one who 
visits these waters to avoid meat suppers, which 
poison and corrupt the very juices we endeavour to 
correct and amend. Vegetables, milk, and the like, 
are preferable. As to liquors, brandy or rum mix- 
ed with the water, or milk and water, are the most 

* As symptoms of the agreement of this water with the 
patient, and of the reverse, the Doctor observes, “ the cramp in 
the calf of the le^, or in any other partof the body, announces the 
good effects of the water; because it plainly indicates that the 
sinews have received new vigour, and a fresh supply of niitri. 
Dient, a* well as elasticity. Warm bathing and exterior uuction, 
cmolient, as well ns repellent, may then be necessary. Some 
mend speedily, others require a longer time ; however, this is 
certain, that if the water docs no service, it must disagrees with 
the constitution, and therefore its use should be discontinued. 



suitable. The air is required to be serene, warm, 
and perfecty clear, so that it ought constantly to fan 
and ventilate our bodies, for the radiating beams of 
the sun would prove detrimental to us, if their scorch- 
ing heat was not continually moderated and correct- 
ed by the cool, gentle, and temperate, breezes of a 
fine, thin, circulating, air, which Llandrindod so 
eminently possesses, and which is so necessary to 
those who drink these waters. 

Exercise, as before observed, should be mild and 
gentle, so it ought never to be used too long, or suf- 
ficient to bring on lassitude or weariness. If, on 
the other hand, to prevent this, you intermit the 
exercise, and have recourse to rest, that rest ought 
not to be indulged so long as to let the body become 
cold or chilly. It will be necessary, always, on cold 
moist days, to have a fire in the room, 

1 he volatile, aetherial, elastic, spirits, most com- 
monly cause, or promote sleep, so that the patients 
who drink these waters, are often heavy and drowsy, 
after taking them. This drowsiness must by ho 
means be indulged, but shook off and diverted by 
some amusement or other, as dancing, walking, or- 
such exercise as the weather, and circumstances of 
the patient will admit of. The same rule must also 
be observed after supper; for nothing is more per- 
nicious than to go immediately to bed, upon a full 



Llandrindod Wells, 


slomach ; and it is equally hurtful to sit up too 

The following cautions, by Dr. Linden, to be ob- 
served previous to, and after, leaving off this water, 
deserves especial notice. 

“ Previous to quitting- tlie wells, the quantity of the water 
should g radually he decreased to two or three glasses; as even 
that small number will still keep up its medicinal efiects. It is 
very dangerous to travel with this water circulating in the 
mass of fluids; it should be purged off by the saline pump 
water, or, in this instance only, witli watergruel; and afterwards 
entirely leave oft' its use. In this interval no fatigue, no hurry, 
should be ventured upon. The diet should be pmin, and easy 
of digestion; when thus three or four days prepared, the patient 
may set out on his journey, but to undertake it sooner would be 
dangerous. In bis jonrney, let him make no long stages, but 
travel quietly and gently. On his return home, sobriety, and 
avoidance of every excess, must be insisted on. For aliment, 
the food that best agrees. Neither keep late hours, nor lie too 
long in the morning. Take exercise in the open air, or if the 
weather prevents, uidoors ; such as walking or dancing ; it is of 
such moment that it cannot be dispensed with.” 



The most proper time for drinking the water is 
early in the morning, before breakfast, and again 
at noon ; many patients are in the habit of repeating 
the dose in the evening, but this practice admits of 
many exceptions, and may even sometimes be at- 
tended with danger. The exact quantity to be 
taken daily must of course be regulated by the seve- 
ral circumstances of the age and constitution of the 



patient, and the nature of the disease, but more par- 
ticularly according to the effects which it is found 
to produce on the individual. The glasses should 
not contain more than one quarter of a pint, or four 
ounces ; a glassful may be taken in the morning, 
and another between breakfast and dinner; in a few 
days the quantity may be increased to three quarters 
of a pint, or a pint. When it is intended to act as a 
general tonic, the total amount taken daily should 
never exceed one quart ; but there are some cases in 
which water may be administered in large doses, 
so as to operate two or three times in the twenty- 
four hours. The signs of its agreeing with the pa- 
tient are an increased appetite and spirits, a general 
glowing feeling of warmth upon the skin, a sensible 
determination to the kidneys, and the gradual im- 
provement of the health and strength. When the 
water disagrees, it occasions flushings in the face, 
fulness and heaviness of the head, bleeding at the 
nose, involuntary spasms, disturbed sleep and 
dreams, heat, thirst, and other febrile symptoms. 
The water sometimes induces haemorrhoidal affec- 
tions, eruptions upon the skin, and a disposition to 
erysipelatous inflammation ; its use should then be 
laid aside, and the body be more prepared for its 
reception. It is most advisable to begin with a 
small quantity, in order that its effects may be ob- 
served, and gradually to increase it, as experience 
teaches us, that chalybeates lose much of their iu- 


Llandrindod Wells, 

flueiice by long- habit. The same rule must be ap- 
plied here of drinking the water as is followed upon 
the introduction of any cold fluid into the stomach; 
it should not be taken when there is any great sense 
of chilliness present, or after a general perspiration is 
commenced. The water should be drank in repeat- 
ed draughts at intervals of from fifteen to twenty 
minutes, which should be employed in exercise. It 
may not be requisite to expatiate on the kind and 
degree of exercise, as this must depend entirely on 
the strength of the invalid ; those that are able may 
walk, or ride, about the common, when the weather 
is favourable ; but should never continue their exer- 
tion, so as to bring on fatigue, or much perspiration. 
An attentive regard to diet is strictly necessary. Tea 
at breakfast, and other vegetable astringents that 
decompose the water, should be avoided, and ought 
not to be taken soon after ; but cocoa, chocolate, or 
milk, may be used with propriety ; and in the even- 
ing tea may be taken without disadvantage.* The 
hour of dining at Llandrindod is at three o’clock, 
and it would be most proper that at least an hour 
should elapse between the taking of the water, and 
anneal. The general diet should consist of animal 
and vegetable substances, that are light and easy of 

* In some instanceSj when the patient complains of any irri- 
tation, excited hy acrid discharg-cs, the water may lie mixed 
witli an equal quantity of milk, which will assist in removing 
the unpleasant symptoms. 



digestion. The quantity taken at one time should 
be moderate. The use of high-seasoned food, or of 
veo-etables that are too acescent, cannot be admitted. 
Water, or white wine and water, may be drank at 
meals, and will much assist the power of the rock 
water. The “Dieta Aquosa” is, in general, carried 
too far at Llandrindod, and I would recommend that 
a glass or two of white wine should be taken after 
dinner. In some cases, brandy much diluted may 
be used ; but as spirituous liquors have a strong 
tendency to diminish the activity of the bile, and 
excite diseases of the liver, they should never be in- 
dulged in. It may be expected that I should make 
some remarks on the medicine which might be ad- 
ministered in conjunction with the rock water: 
further than what has been advanced in preparing 
the body for its use, and the occasional employment 
of the aloetic pill, or a few grains of calomel, the 
water should always be allowed a fair trial in its 
natural state; and from the analysis which has been 
given, it does not appear to me, that it will be found 
deficient in power. Chalybeate waters have rarely 
been proposed as remedies for very young children ; 
their complaints, in general, are such as do not re- 
quire a tonic and stimulating medicine, under the 
age of eight or ten years ; the rock water may not 
therefore be considered of good effects ; nor can it 
be deemed a proper medicine for elderly persons 
of either sex, particularly females, at that period, 


Llandrindod Wells, 

when the constitution undergoes a change. With 
respect to the requisite duration of a course of the 
water, this must depend very much on the nature 
and extent of the disease. When its employment is 
judiciously managed, the patient soon begins to feel 
its beneficial effects, and these continue long after 
the water is left off. A shorter period than three 
weeks scarcely justifies the expectation of any mate- 
rial advantage, and a longer one than two months, 
or at the utmost three, is not required to produce 
all the good effects of which it is capable. During 
this period the water should be occasionally omitted 
for h few days together, by which the stomach will 
be relieved, and its influence not be so likely to wear 
off from constant habit. 



The stream of this water flows from the south, 
and affords a sufficiency for the invalids who resort 
to Llandrindod ; the supply is not however very 
plentiful, and the well is occasionally pumped dry 
for an hour. The well is sunk about six feet below 
the surface of the ground, and is secured from any 
accidental admixture with other springs. In closely 
corked bottles the water will bear carriage to some 
distance, and will retain its purging qualities ; but 
from the volatile nature of its gaseous contents, 
cannot be so efficacious as when drank at the pump. 



Corked bottles that have been filled with the fresh 
water, and afterwards immersed in a hot fluid, or 
set in a warm place, presently burst from the ex- 
pansion of the gas. The sensible qualities of the 
saline water when drawn immediately from the 
pump, are, it is quite clear, colourless and bright ; 
it does not sparkle in the glass after the first agita- 
tion of the water is gone off : to the taste it is 
weakly saline, and exhales a perceptible sulphure- 
ous odour ; but is by no means unpalatable, the bit- 
terness of the earthy salts being concealed by the 
muriate of soda. After being exposed to the at- 
mosphere for a few hours, the smell is entirely lost, 
the water appears full of globules of air that line the 
inside of the glass; it retains its transparency for 
some days, when it becomes slightly turbid, a deli- 
cate white pellicle encrusts its surface, and a scanty 
precipitate subsides. In the summer of 1816, the 
temperature varied from 53“ to 54® ; in July, at 
the temperature 54®, the specific gravity of the fresh 
water was 1006.5 ; in October, after there had been 
much rain, at the same temperature, it was 1005, 
On the 31st of May, 1817, the temperature of the 
water was 52®, and its specific gravity 1005,4. Al- 
though the thermometrical temperature of the saline 
andsulphereous water does not commonly differ more 
than one or two degrees, the former produces a 
much greater sensation of cold when its tempera- 
ture is equal to the other. This water differs very 


Llandrindod Wells, 

much from the Cheltenham, both in the nature of 
the acid and of the base, to which it owes its aperient 
properties : as may be seen by the following ana- 

' \ 


Experiment 1. — Tincture of galls, when added to the fresh 
water, strikes a fine light purple tinge, which in a few hours 
becomes of a deeper cast; a dark flocculent precipitate falls to 
the bottom of the glass, and the water above appears of a yellow 
or greenish colour. 

2. Half an ounce of infusion of green tea was poured, into a 

t allon of the water, and produced a purple colour, which gra- 
ually subsided in the form of a black precipitate. 

3. Prussiate of potash occasioned only a light green cloud, 
which did not, upon longstanding, acquire the least sliade of blue. 

4. A few drops of nitric acid were added to a gallon of the 
fresh water, and it was suffered to rest for twelve hours, when no 
change whatever was produced, either by tincture of galls or 
infusion of green tea ; nor were these re-agents affectecT by the 
water after it had been boiled or exposed to the air for an 

5. Tincture of litmus is not immediately altered, but in 
about ten minutes the surface of the water is very slightly red- 
dened, and after several hours becomes of a violet colour. 

6. Tincture of Brazil wood dropped into a gallon of the 
water is evidently discoloured, and precipitated of a purplish 

7, Syrup of violets is in a few minutes rendered of a beautiful 
grass green, which in a short time becomes more deep. 

8. The delicate yellow of turmeric paper was not impaired 
after lying in a gallon of the water for twelve hours. 

9. Carbonate of ammonia causes an abundant precipitate. 

10. The caustic alkalies render the water turbid. 

11. A solution of soap is curdled. 

12. Nitrate and muriate of barytes do not indicate the smallest 
trace of sulphuric acid. 

13. Lime water produces a considerable turbidness when 
mixed with the fresh water, or after it has been boiled. 

14. Concentrated sulphuric acid destroys the transparency of 
the water, and causes a precipitation of lime. 

15. The muriatic and nitric acids preserve the water in a 
clear state, and diseng-age a few bubbles of air. 




16. Nitrate of silver occasions white streaks, ting’eil with 
blue, which soon acquire a dingy yellow, with a copious sedi- 

"'l?! The water concentrated by boiling, aftbrded a white 
precipitate, with this te8t._ 

18 Oxalate of aninionia produces dense white cloudSi 
ID. Characters written upon paper with a solution of acetate 
of lead, became of a dark brown colour when held over the sur- 
face of the water for a few minutes. 

20. Nitro-inuriate of platina denoted the absence of salts 
with a base of potash. 

•21. A solution of muriate of ammonia was not changed. 

From the preceding experiments we derive the following 

conclusions . c n i 

That the change produced upon the tincture ot galls and 
green tea, is occasioned by the action of the sulphur. Exp. 

... . 
That the quantity of iron contained in the water is so exceed- 
ingly minute, that 'it can scarcely be detected by the most deli- 
cate test. Exp. 3. _ .... 

That the saline water contains fixed air or carbonic acid in an 
uiicombined state. Exp. 5. 

That a carbonated earth is present. Exp. 6. 

That a carbonate alkali does not exist in the water. Exp. 8. 
That the watercontains lime, and probably in no inconsider- 
able proportion. Exp. 9, 14,18. _ .... 

That no saline or earthy base, united with sulphuric acid can 
be discovered in the water. Exp. 12. 

That the water contains magnesia, is shewn by the caustic 
alkalies, and the eftect of lime on the boiled water, Exp. 

That the acid, in combination with the different salts, is the 
muriatic. Exp. IG, 17. 

That it is a hard water. Exp. 11. 

That the w.ater contains a sulphureous principle. Exp. 7, 16. 
t That sulphur is evolved from the water in a gaseous form. 
Exp. 19. 



By the action of heat the water is rendered a little 
turbid ; the sulphur is partly deposited and partly 


Llandrindod Wells, 

conveyed off by the hydrogen gas, which holds it in 
solution. The salts obtained by evaporation have a 
greyish colour, and in other respects are not dissi- 
milar to those procured from the rock water. 

Twelve pints were considerably reduced by evapo- 
ration, and after the sediment which ensued had 
been separated by a filter, the remaining fluid was 
further concentrated until a crystallization com- 
menced on the surface, when it was set aside to 
cool. The salts thus obtained were of a cubic 
figure, decrepitated when thrown on hot coals, fused 
at a red heat, and sublimed without decomposition, 
which are the distinguishing marks of muriate of 

The brine afforded a white flaky salt, composed 
of the muriates of lime and magnesia ; its taste was 
extremely acrid and bitter ; it fused at a low red 
heat without crackling, and remained perfectly dry 
when properly secured from the atmosphere ; but 
upon exposure, deliquesced very rapidly. 

The sediment separated by the filter effervesced 
with diluted muriatic acid, and was insoluble in 
spirits of wine, \nth the exception of a little vege- 
table matter, which gave the solution a yellowish 

A* A wine gallon of the water wee evaporated 
to dryueis by a very gentle heat, and afforded 342 



grains of solid contents, which were digested for 
eighteen hours in 1000 grains of highly rectified 
spirits of wine. The solution was separated, and 
the insoluble matter washed with a little fresh spirit, 
and dried at 212°, weighed 250 grains. 

B. C. The 250 grains were digested for twenty- 
four hours in 12 oz. of cold distilled water ; the re- 
sidue was collected, washed, and dried at 212*? ; it 
weighed 5,8 grains. 


A. Muriate of lime aud mag^ncsia...... .02 

li. Muriate of soda 244,2 

C. Insoluble residue 5,8 


A. a. The alcoholic solution was evaporated to 
dryness, and the salts, dissolved in a little cold dis- 
tilled water, were decomposed with effervescence by 
means of a cold solution of carbonate of ammonia, 
that had previously been exposed to the atmosphere 
for several hours. The muriate of ammonia was 
washed off from the carbonate of lime, which was 
saturated with very pure muriatic acid, diluted with 
a small quantity of distilled water ; the muriate of 
lime thus formed was dried 8^212®, and weighed 67 
grains ; — b. This being deducted from 92| leaves for 
the muriate of magnesia} 25 grains* 

The lolutioni after the carbonate of lime had been 


Llandrindod Wells, 

separated, gave a white precipitate with phosphate 
of soda. 

B. a. The salt taken up by the aqueous solu- 
tion, consisted entirely of muriate of soda ; it re- 
mained permanent in the air, and when evaporated 
to dryness, crystallized in cubes and quadrangular 

C. a. The 5.8 grains which had resisted the 
action of the spirits of wine and water, were digest- 
ed in cold diluted muriatic acid for two hours ; the 
residue was washed, dried at 212*^, and weighed 5.2 
grains. It was composed of vegetable matter. 

b. The muriatic solution was diluted with dis- 
tilled water and divided into equal parts; a few 
drops of oxalate of ammonia being added to a por- 
tion of it, no precipitation or loss of transparency 
ensued ; but with the caustic ammonia, the presence 
of a small quantity of magnesia was indicated in the 

A wine gallon of the water appears, from these 
data, to contain, of 


A. a. Muriate of lime 67 

b magnesia 25 

B. a soda 244.2 

C. a. Vegetable matter. ; 5.2 

6. Carbonate of magnesia 6 






A glass flask, which with its syphon contained 
exactly sixteen ounces and two drachms, was com- 
pletely filled with the water, and gradually heated 
by means of a spirit lamp; upon the first impres- 
sion of the heat the water expanded, and the two 
drachms contained in the syphon were suffered to 
escape, and deducted from the results of the experi- 
ment, which was repeated several times with similar 

The gas was received over mercury, and the boil- 
ing temperature continued until no more came over. 
The sulphuretted hydrogen, that was not decom- 
posed by the mercury, was absorbed by a hot solu- 
tion of nitrate of silver, and there remained in the 
eudiometer 1.125 cubic inch, when the barometer 
stood at 29*^. 8, and the thermometer at 58®.' 

The gas was transferred into a phial filled with 
lime water, and frequently agitated ; the carbonic 
acid was thus separated from the azote, and gave 
for their respective proportions, of 


Cubic inches. 

Carl>onic acid gas 0.50 

Azote 0.6-26 ‘ 



Llanduindod Wells, 

Or, per gallon, of 

Cubic inches. 

Carbonic acid gas 4 

Azote 5 


To determine the quantity of sulphuretted hydro- 
gen, the gaseous products of sixteen ounces of the 
fresh water were received over boiled water of the 
temperature 100®, and at the conclusion of the pro- 
cess, immediately transferred into a hot solution of 
nitrate of silver ; a diminution of bulk ensued equal 
to 0.125, making for the total quantity of sulphuret- 
ted hydrogen, per gallon, 1 cubic inch. 

The saline water is subject to very little variation 
in its specific gravity ; hence the proportion of its 
solid contents is usually about the same. 


la July, 1816, a wine Gallon yielded 342 

In June, 1817, ditto 346 



By far the greater number of persons, who resort 
to Llandrindod, derive the most benefit from drinks 
ing the saline water. 

It cannot, however, be taken with impunity, and 
requires that some attention should be paid to the 



constitution of the patient previous to its use. In 
general, a few grains of calomel administered the 
preceding evening at bed- time will be sufficient 
and may be worked off the following morning by the 

But when the bowels have been long disordered, 
or the patient is of a full plethoric habit, a further 
preparation will be required. In the latter instance, 
it may be proper to allow a part of the carbonic 
acid gas to escape, either by warming the water, or 
exposing it to the atmosphere for a short time be- 
fore it is drank. 

General blootl-letting is very rarely necessary ; 
yet there may be some cases in which it would form 
a part of the plan of treatment, and a professional 
gentleman ought to be consulted as to its propriety. 
When taken to the extent of from three to eight, or 
ten half pints, the water occasions several evacua- 
tions, which may be regulated by the number of 
glasses taken after the first motion has been pro- 
cured. The purgative effect of the water is much 
increased by the aid of warm fluids, and when a 
few glasses are found insufficient to operate upon 
the bowels, it will be most advisable for the patient 
to drink half a pint of the water that has been 
warmed, and this is best done by adding to the cold 
water some that has been previously made hot, 


Llandrindod Wells, 

The aperient qualities of the saline water are often 
promoted by alternately combining’ a glass or two 
of the sulphureous water along with it. 

The number of glasses required to purge, varies 
considerably with different persons ; hence, the 
water is often drank in much too large a quantity. 
If the means that have been recommended do hot 
render the water sufficiently strong to produce the 
desired effect, it would certainly be most prudent 
to mix some Glauber's salts with the water, rather 
than to go on drinking glass after glass until it 
operates. Salts of a similar nature to those con- 
tained in the water, might easily be obtained by the 
process of evaporation and crystallization, and when 
the muriate of soda has been separated from the 
deliquescent salts, the latter may be preserved in a 
state of solution, and added to the water as occasion 
may demand. Some discrimination is required, to 
determine whether the water ought to be used so as 
to produce its full effects on the bowels, or more 
particularly to promote the excretion of urine, both 
of which may be effected according to the method of 
administering the water. 

The sensible effects of this water, upon taking it, 
are a slight degree of drowsiness and head-ache, 
which usually go off after the first day. Sometimes 
these symptoms continue during its use, and come 



on more especially in the evening’, after dinner, even 
when the bowels have been freely evacuated in the 
morning, and may be attributed to the influence of 
the carbonic acid gas. 


Patients who drink the water incautiously, in 
large doses, suffer very much, unless it purges them 
briskly, and they often complain of great distention 
of the stomach and bowels, flushings of the face, 
with a strong disposition to sleep, and dryness of 
the mouth and fauces ; in weak and irritable habits, 
the water is apt to excite some degree of thirst, 
even when used in small and repeated doses. These 
unpleasant symptoms may be removed, by pro- 
curing an evacuation from the bowels as quickly as 

It may be proper to mention, that when the water 
operates entirely by urine, and does not cause a de- 
termination to the intestines so as to unload them of 
their contents, the invalid will not be much benefit- 
ed ; and if the use of tlie water is persevered in, it 
only induces debility and nervous irritation. 

The saline water sits lightly on the stomach, and 
acts on the bowels in a very gentle and mild manner, 
without occasioning griping, or leaving that languor 
and weariness which often succeed the operation of 
the common neutral salts ; and may be persisted in 
for several weeks without losing its effect, or in- 


Llandrindod Wells, 

ducing any great debility ; during its course the 
spirits and general health of the patient will be 
much improved ; and this invigoration may be 
ascribed to the stimulus of the carbonic acid gas, 
and of its other saline ingredients on the stomach 
and digestive organ ; yet, when the water is drank 
for a long time, so as to cause a great determination 
to the bowels, some degree of debility and lassitude 
is felt, and not unfrequently the rock water may be 
recommended with success, after the use of this 
water, for the removal of bilious complaints. The 
saline water should be taken early in the morning, 
in doses of half a pint each, at intervals of from 
ten to fifteen minutes ; the patient should take 
moderate exercise in the open air till it operates, 
and when it has given one or two motions, he may 
return to breakfast, but the fast should never be 
broken until such time as the bowels have been 
opened once at least. With the few exceptions that 
have been mentioned, it is always most judicious to 
allow the water a fair trial at its natural tempera- 
ture, not only because it is more pleasant and agree- 
able to the taste, but that its coldness will, in many 
instances, have a beneficial influence, and by the 
re-action which it excites, very much improve the 
tone and energy of the stomach. 

During a long course of the water, it would be 
of service to discontinue its use for awhile and 



sometimes the sulphureous water may be combined 
with it to advantage. 

Many patients are in the habit of drinking it with 
their meals, and at all hours of the day ; but those 
who consult their health will avoid this practice, 
which may be attended with the most serious conse- 
quences : indeed, the best authors who have written 
on the subject of mineral waters, have been so fully 
convinced of the importance of this regulation, that 
they expressly forbid their use at meals, or even for 
several hours afterwards. 

The saline water has been found a valuable re- 
medy in hypochondriasis, and in a long train of 
nervous diseases that proceed from a vitiated state of 
the bile ; in chronic rheumatism; in obstinate and 
habitual costiveness ; in scorbutic disorders ; in 
scrophula ; in a variety of glandular obstructions, 
and when the stomach is loaded with a viscid mucus 
inducing nausea, sickness, and a morbid state of 
appetite ; in cases of hcemorrhojdal affection, and 
intestinal worms. 

“ Persons who, from a long residence in warm climates, or 

from leading a sedentary life, and great application to business 
have had their biliary organs injured, and are labouring under 
an irregularity in the secretion of bile, with languor and torpor 
of the mind, loss of appetite, and indigestion,” may often be re- 
stored to convalescence by a course of the saline water, and a 
strict adherence to the rules of diet, air, and exercise.* 

♦ Saunders on Mineral Waters, 


Llandrindod Wells, 

Hpochondriasis is a complaint to which persons 
of the melancholy temperam'ent, with dark hair and 
complexions, are the most liable ; and they are also 
more subject to a redundancy of bile, which, when 
secreted in too large a quantity, occasions debility 
of the frame, and a desponding, inactive state of the 
mind. This disease often proceeds from obstruc- 
tions in the liver, and a deficiency of bile ; but it is 
in a superabundance of that fluid, with increased 
acrimony, where the water will prove of the greatest 
service : when accompanied with gall-stones, their 
passage will be best promoted by drinking the 
warmed water, with the proper use of tartarized 
antimony, nauseating doses of ipecacuanha, and the 
cautious employment of calomel. 

In the dropsy,! have had no opportunity of Judg- 
ing of the power of the water. Three instances 
have been related to me, in which it was said not to 
have produced any good effects ; still, from its be- 
ing a strong dieuretic, I should feel disposed to re- 
commend it in the incipient symptoms of anasarca, 
and cedematous swellings of the feet, that originate 
in a disordered state of the liver, but not so as to 
interfere with the exhibition of more powerful me- 

The water may be employed in many diseases of 
the urinary organs, that give rise to the formation 
of calculi and gravely and after a long course of iner- 



cury, for the cure of venereal affections. It is more 
especially in these cases that the saline water should 
be administered in small doses early in the morning, 
and between breakfast and dinner, so as to keep the 
bowels regular, and promote the excretion of mine. 
Combined with milk, it has been prescribed in the 
hectic fever that attends pulmonary consumption, 
and found to allay the cough and troublesome 
dyspnoea usually attendant on that distressing com- 

Another important use of the saline water is in 
removing the peculiar habit of body that predis- 
poses to cutaneous eruptions and scorbutic disorders, 
“ which cannot be repelled without exciting inter- 
nal inflammation, and make their appearance at dif- 
ferent periods in painful ulcerations on the skin, 
producing a copious acrid discharge of lymph, and 
an abundant desquamation.”* Such complaints are 
often tedious in their progress, and require a patient 
trial of the water. Sometimes the eruptions and 
itching are increased for the first few days, but go 
off' by the aid of a little cooling medicine. 

In scrophula, the sea-water has certainly a decided 
preference, both on account of its greater strength, 
and the influence of the marine air, which contri- 
butes much to the invalid’s recovery ; although in- 

* Dr. Saunders on Mineral Waters. 


Llandrindod Wells, 

stances are not wanting where this water has ef- 
fected a cure. 

Hoemorrhoids, or piles, and fistula in ano, are 
more frequently to be regarded as constitutional 
than local diseases, and generally owe their origin to 
a full and plethoric habit, hepatic obstruction, or 
habitual costiveness. Experience has long deter- 
mined the superior efficacy of saline purges, parti- 
cularly when united with sulphur, over those of a 
more drastic nature. Here, then, the sulphureous 
and saline waters may be combined and taken, with 
the hope of producing a salutary change. 

“ Females who are sufiering- from a number of anomalous 
symptoms, occasioned by a suppression of the menstrual dis. 
charge, and women who have arrived at that time of life when 
this periodical evacuation begins to cease, and is followed by 
difficult respiration, febrile heat, irregular flushings, pains in 
the back, and swellings of the feet,”-)- will derive benefit from 
the saline water at Llandridod. 

The water often gives immediate relief in the 
heartburn, and restores the tone and vigour of the 
stomach after it has been impaired by the intempe- 
rate use of food, or of spirituous liquors. 

The stomach is much assisted in its energy by 
warm clothing and moderate exercise ; and when, 
from diseased bones or other cause, this becomes 
impracticable, the patient should be carried about, 
or ride in an open carriage. 

t Dr. Saunders on Mineral Waters, 



■ ■ ' ■‘T 

The diet should be nutritive, and valher generous ; 
every kind of aliment that is heavy, and indigestible 
in its nature, or heating and stimulating in its qua- 
lity, should be avoided. The quantity the stomach 
is capable of digesting, must never be exceeded ; 
and water, or white wine and water, should form 
the common beverage at meals. 

The saline water may be drank as soon as the 
weather will permit of early rising, and the use of 
exercise before breakfast; hence it is that the com- 
panv rarely resort to Llandrindod before May, and 
continne there through the Summer months until the 
beginning of November. , 

The duration of the course must be regulated by 
the nature of the disease, and the effects of the water 
on the coastitution. A shorter time than two or 
three weeks will scarcely justify the expectation of 
any permanent benefit; and it more frequently hap- 
pens, that it must be persevered in for four or five 
weeks, and sometimes for months, before the health 
is perfectly re-established. 

In hot weather the journey to Llandindod should 
be performed by gentle stages, otherwise an inflam- 
matory disposition might be excited that would de- 
feat the intended purposes of the water ; and for the 
same reason it may be proper, on the arrival of the 
patient, to delay its employment for a day or two. 


Llandrindod Wells, 

The water should always be left off in a gradual 
* manner, and no alteration made in the diet for some 
time, to prevent the mischief that might ensue from 
a sudden discontinuance of the depleting system. 

The saline water is well adapted for the purposes 
of a cold bath, and may be used, under the same 
restrictions as sea water, in all cases of general de- 
bility and nervous affections, that are unattended by 
any determination of blood to the head and chest, 
or internal inflammation, provided that the constitu- 
tion is able to bear the shock of immersion, and to 
overcome the sedative powers of cold water ; for 
when the patient is so debilitated as to be incapable 
of re-action, and remains trembling, pale, and in- 
active, bathing is a remedy of a dangerous nature. 

Those who are of a strong and robust habit may 
bathe early in the morning, before breakfast ; but, 
in general, weak and delicate people will derive the 
'most advantage from going into the water about two 
hours afterwards. 


The saline water should not be drank on the days 
that the bath is used, and the frequency of its repe- 
tition must depend on the nature of the disease ; it 
should not, however, be employed oftener than 
three times a week. 

In ardent fever the cold affusion is limited to that 
stage of the coui])laint “ when there is no sense of 




chilliness present, when the heat of the surface of 
ihe body is steadily above the natural standard, 
and especially when there is no general or profuse 





“Tlie Pump water of Llandrindod will be found 
an excellent remedy in the scurvy, in tetterous 
eruptions, and in the hypochondriac malady; in 
the morphcw, in the leprosy, in several species 
of the gravel, in fevers, particularly such as are 
called fevers upon the spirits : and in all such ma- 
ladies as proceed from impure and corrupt juices. 
In all these disorders, we venture to call our Llan- 
drindrod wafer a sovereign remedy ; because its 
purgative contents are by the ajtherial, elastic, vo- 
latile, mineral spirits, conveyed through the smallest 
meanders that the circulation is performed through : 
which dissolve and discharge the matter that causes 
the eruptions, obstructions, and ulcers, which are 
their characteristics. 'I'he Scrofula, or King’s 
Evil, 'is a disorder which, to ni} certain, know- 

* Dr. Currie on cold Affusion. 



Llandrindod Wells. 

ledge, has frequently been cured by ibis, and 
the Sulphur water taken in conjunction : nor need 
Ave longer wonder at it, when we view them in their 
true light, as purifiers of the blood of the first class. 
To such as are affected with costiveness, we espes- 
cialiy recommend this Saline water, which will bring 
their bodies into proper temper. Many other dis- 
eases might be brought in here ; such are those 
where the dregs of the small pox are not sufficiently 
purged off ; which for a series of years may make 
the constitution miserable ; or the leaven of juvenile 
sallies, which all the art of’ healing, with the joint 
aid of chemical inventions has not hitherto been 
able to root out and destroy; yet in these natural 
remedies, we find our wants of effectual medicines 
copiously sup))lie(l. In some disorders, and most 
commonly in these, the skin is like a parchment; 
•and the perspiratory duels so much closed u}), that 
It would be unreasonable to ex()ecl a deobstruent qua- 
lity equal to our purpose, to exert itself at this great 
distance from the heart, in intervals only. It is 
therefore absolulely necessan/, in order to effect a 
complete cure, to bathe in these Saline waters, with- 
out any other addition, made milk warm. This will 
soften, dissolve, and dischaigethe glutinous lentor, 
that is lodged, and blocks up the pores of the skin. 
In the case of gravel, this water must be used cau- 
liously, small doses in the beginning with a long con- 
tinuance, must be insisted on; nor will any thing 



more be required to brace the vessels and prevent a 
retuin of the disease. These waters are, from the mid- 
dle of March to the beginning of November, in their 
highest perfection; but they are efficacious in re- 
lieving diseases in any, and every part of the year.. 

As soon as the patient has chosen his lodging, 
let him consider whether his body has been lax, or 
costive, during his journey ; if costive, take a pint 
of the Saline pump water on going to bed ; if other* 
wise, omit it. Early next morning, about nine or 
ten ounces of blood should be taken away. A few 
minutes before bleeding, drink a quarter of a pint 
of pump water, and while the blood is running, 
take now and then a spoonful of it, which will pre- 
vent fainting, and make the blood issue more briskly. 
I’he place of bleeding, whether in the arm or the 
leg must be left to the discretion of the physician. 
In a raorphew, or where a patient is inclined to 
corpulence, cupping is certainly of far greater advan- 
tage than bleeding ; but then cupping must be re- 
peated every other or third week, while bleeding is 
seldom requisite more than once in a whole course. 
This water should be drank out of long narrow 
glasses, and so swallowed gradually, by which 
means the aethereal, volatile, elastic spirits will 
diffuse themselves with more facility through the 
minutest vessels, and open the passage for the 

water, and its salutary contents. 

K 2 


Llandrindod Wells, 

The scorbutic patient having entered upon the 
course, must use this water both purgativeiy and 
alteralively. As an alterative it is certainly one of 
the best, as it sits easy on the stomach, strengthens, 
and warms it, increases the appetite, promotes di- 
gestion, and renders a person brisk, lively, and 
rigorous. As a purgative, so much of this water 
niust be taken, as will operate four times, and as 
an alterative once or twice extraordinary, in twenty- 
four hours. As a medicine for adults, the quantity 
is about three times a day, by way of alterative, 
which is to be regulated in this manner : — about 
one pint and half should be taken in three doses, 
leaving fifteen minutes between each, in the morning 
before breakfast ; about an hour befoi-e dinner, 
another half pint, another about six o’clock in the 
evening, and the same quantity at night on going 
to bed : should these doses fail to produce the de- 
sired effects, they must be increased, and if too 
powerful, lessened accordingly. 

Amongst the many and various diseases incident 
to humanity, none require purging physic so much 
as the scurvy; it is well therefore, that we have the 
blessing of these natural purgatives, that do not 
weaken and enfeeble the constitution. As physic, 
then, this water ought to be taken about twice a 
week, in order to discharge the crudities of the dis- 
temper, that were softened, loosened, and put inta 



agitation by the water, whilst it acted as an altera- 

tive. In hvpochondriacal affections we must regu* 
late the use of this water by other methods, to make 
it a suitable remedy, because of the great langour 
of spirits, attended by flatulencies, troublesome 
eructations, great debility in the digestive faculties, 
lassitude in all the limbs, head ache, with many 
other symptoms ; which, together with the ob- 
structions seated in the hypochondria, demand more 
moderate proceedings, snd more gentle assaults, to 
oblige them to give way, A frequent change of 

medicines is very detrimental in this disorder. Bath- 
ing, as well as drinking the waters, is not only 
serviceable but necessary*; The hypochondriac 
patient being arrived at the alterative method of 
taking this water, his draughts must by no means 
be too large and copious as those prescribed in 
scorbutic cases. His glass should be no larger than 
a common wine glass, but let him drink often, that 
is, as much as will agree with him without purging. 
Let him more than once, take a small glass between 
meals, and on going to rest. 

When thus the patient has drank the Saline pump 
water for about three or four weeks, he ought to 

* For Doctor Linden’s instructions and remarks on a Saline 
Bath. See another part of this Work, viz. the Park Wells, 
Builth: that article is purposely postponed, as the matter 
respecting these Waters of Llandrindod has swelled to an 
unexpected length. 


Llandrindod Wells, 

bathe in baths made of the sulphur waters ; which 
bathing must be repeated every other, or every 
third day, according as he maintains his force and 
spirits underjts effects; But on the bathing days, 
he must totally refrain from drinking the Saline 
pump water*. 

* The reader who is acquainted with Doctor Linden’s 
Work, will observe it is here very necessarily condensed, as 
he is generally most teazingly diffusive, and abounding with 
repetitions. Thus, simplicity of dietand drink, with wholesome 
and agreeable exercise, as with the Rock Water, is recom- 
mended again in the same words, with similar dissuasions 
from intemperance in eating and drinking. 






T^H ERE are several springs of a sulphureous nature 
Llandrindod, situated within a few yards of each 
other: one only of these is now used internally ; 
the rest are employed as external applications. 

The sulphureous water rises in a dingle about 
100 yards north of the saline water, and its stream 
flows nearly in an opposite direction from north to 

The soil is of a dark brown colour, and consists 
chiefly of the remains of decayed animal and vege- 
table matter, with strong traces of a ferruginous 
earth. It does not evervesce, with the mineral 
ascids ; but is more favourable to vegetation than 
the soil upon the common. 


Llandrindod Wells, 

Upon pumping early in the morning, the first 
portions of water are covered with a thin pellicle, 
and often contain small pieces of sulphur, that have 
been deposited on the sides of the well. 

This water varies much in its appearance; some- 
times it is of a colour inclining to blue, and at 
others, perfectly clear and transparent. 

It has a strong sulphureous smell, similar to the 
odour of addle eggs, or the washings of a gun 
barrel. To the taste it is slightly saline and nau- 
seous, but habit soon reconciles the patient to its 

It gives out a few bubbles of air, and leaves a 
halitus, or vapour, that obscures the transparency 
of the glass. 


The .water, in its course down the channel from 
the pump, deposits a black sediment, and white 
fibrous mucus, which was formerly preserved for 
the purpose of dressing old wounds and ill-condi- 
tioned ulcers. 


After standing for- twenty-four hours exposed to 
the atmosphere, the water becomes rather opaque; 
it loses its sulphureous taste and smell, and becomes 
simply saline even when secureed from the air, the. 



sulphur being disengaged from the hydrogen gas, 
and precipitated in a thin film on the sides of the 
vessel. The water sliould, therefore, be drank at 


the pump. “ more especially in cutaneous diseases, 
where the sulphureous principle is particularly re- 
quired ; vessels out of which this water has been 
constantly drank, or that have retained it for a 
short time, become coated with a black sulphureous 

The water is much affected by heavy rains, and 
after some days of stormy weather, becomes very 
turbid. This circumstance is probably owing to 
the well, which is not sunk more than three feet, 
communicating w'ith the neighbouring springs. 

In the summer of 1816, the temperature of the 
w ater was generally 64'*. 

In May and the beginning of June, 1817, it was 
52 ^. 

In July, 1816, its specific gravity was 1009.5- 

In September, 1005®; and on the 31st of May, 
1817, 1004°. 

The specific gravity of the water is, therefore,, 
subject to some variation, and this may arise from 


Llandrindod Wells, 

the same cause that destroys its transparency in a 
rainy season. 

Examination of the Sulphureous Water hy Reagents. 

Tincture of galls dropped into the fresh water 
occasions a light purple tinge, which, after some 
hours, turns black : a tlocculenf precipitate falls to 
the bottom of the glass, and the water above ac- 
quires a yellowish colour ; but this change is not 
produced after the water has been boiled, or suf- 
fered to remain iu the open air for a short time. 

Prussiate of potash causes a light green tinge, 
which, after standing for half an hour, becomes 
shaded with a very faint cloud of blue. 

Tincture of litmus was not perceptibly reddened 
but had its blue colour slightly increased. 

Tincture of Brazil wood, added to a pint of the 
water, was, after some days, precipitated of a dingy 
blue colour. 

Turmeric paper was not altered. 

Syrup of violets is in a few minutes rendered of 
light grass green, which gradually changes to a 
much deeper cast. 



A solulion of soap is immediately curdled. 

Lime water is instantly rendered turbid, both 
before and after the water has been boiled. 

A few drops of nitric acid preserve the trans- 
parency of the water, accelerate the escape of a few 
globules of air, and increase the sulphureous odour 
that proceeds from it. 

Oxalate of ammonia discovers the presence of a 
large quantity of lime. 

Nitrate of barytes gives no indication of the ex- 
istence of combined sulphuric acid. 

Nitrate of silver produces beautiful white circles 
streaked with blue, which as they descend through 
the water, become of an orange brown colour. 

Nitrate of silver added to the boiled water, was 
followed by an abundant white precipitate; 

Characters traced on paper with a solution of 
acetate of lead become black and legible when 
steeped in the fresh water, or held over its surface, 
vhich indicates the presence of sulphuretted hy- 
drogen, and accounts for the change which the 
water undergoes on being exposed to the atmosphere 


Llandrindod Wells, 

• * 

for a few hours, as well as for the sulphureous se- 
dituent found on the sides of tlie vessels in which it 
has been kept. 

Bismuth is blackened by the fresh water, and po- 
lished silver is immediately tarnished. 

The water is not in the least degree affected, 
either by tartaric acid, or the nitro muriate of pla- 


From the foregoing experiments, the following 
inferences may be drawn. 

That the water does contain the least possible 
trace of iron, as indicated by the faint cloud of blue 
produced by the prussiate of potash, but in quan- 
tity infinitely too minute to be estimated. 

I'hat, in other respects, the water is similar to 
the saline, from which' it differs only in the propor- 
tions of its solid ingredients, in being more fully 
impregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen gas, and 
containing less of carbonic acid gas. 

Examination of the Sulphureous Water 
BY Evaporation. 

The odour of the sulphureous water is augmentet’ 



by the actiuii of heat ; this may proceed from a 
greater volume of suijduiretted gas being driven off 
ill a given time tlian when allowed to evaporate 

When the water is boiled in metallic vessels, it is 
decomposed, and becomes of ayellow colour, from 
the influence of the sulphur on their surfaces. 

A wine gallon of the water being evaporated to 
dryness, left a residuum of 308 grains. 

^1. 'I'his was digested in foui times its weight of 
highly rectified spirits of wine for 24 hours; the so 
lution was separated, and the salts that remained 
undissolved being washed with a little fresh spirit, 
were dried at 212”, and weighed 222.(1 grains. 

B. c. The 222.(1 grains were digested with 12 
07 .. of distilled water, and the insoluble I'esidue 
being collected, washed, aad dried, weighed 6 


A. Muriates of liuie aud mag'iiesia 85.4 

B. Kliiriatc of soda 2to.3 

C. Ii. soluble residue O'. 




Li.anduinuod Wells, 

/J. a. The alcoholic solution was evaporated to 
dryness, and the earthly , muriates decomposed by 
sulphuric acid ; the excess of acid was expelled by 
an increase of temperature ; the sulphate of mag- 
nesia was carefully dissolved in a small quantity of 
cold distilled water, and the solution separated from 
the sulphate of lime, which was again washed with 
a fiesh portion of water, and then boiled for twenty 
minutes in three times its w'eight of carbonate of 
potash ; the sulphate of potash was washed off 
with distilled w'ater, and the carbonate of lime 
saturated with pure muriatic acid, diluted with a 
little water; the muriate of lime was dried at 212°, 
and weighed 54 grains. 

This being deducted from 85.4 leaves 31.4 grains 
b for the muriate of magnesia. 

B. a. The watery solution being evaporated to^ 
dryness, afforded 210.3 grains of muriate of soda. 

C. a. The insoluble residue scarcely effervesced 
with diluted muriatic acid ; no lime could be de- 
tected by oxalate of ammonia; but with prussiate 
of potash, the solution gave a light blue tinge, and 
when that had subsided, 'yielded a very slight sedi- 
ment of magnesia with the caustic ammonia ; what 
remained undissolved, was vegetable matter. 



It is very evident that sulphur is precipated 
from this water, from the stain left in the vessels 
in which it has been preserved ; but with regard to 
the proi)ortion found after the process of evapora- 
tion, this varies considerably, for unless the de- 
gree of heat is far below the boiling point, the 
whole of it will be dissipated. 

From these experiments, a wine gallon of the 

water contains, of 


A. a. Muriate of lime ' 54 

d. Muriate of Magnesia 31.4 

B. a. Muriate ofSoda 216.3 

C. a. Vegetable matter, with a trace of 

iron and mag'iiesia 6 



Loss muriate of Soda 3 

Total 308. 

# . 

Examination of the Gaseous Contents of the Sulphu- 
reous IVater. 

A glass flask, which with its syjflion contained 
exactly sixteen ounces and two drachms, was 
fllled with the fresh water, and gradually heated by 
means of a spirit lamp ; the water expanded upon 
the first impression of the heat, the two drachms 
contained in the syphon, were sulfered to escape, 
and detlucted from the results of the experiment. 



The boiling temperature was continued for the 
necesssary length of time, and the gas received over 
incrcHry, the sulphuretted hydrogen that was not 
decomposed by the quicksilver, was absorbed by a 
hot solution of nitrate of silver, and the respective 
, proportions of (he carbonic acid gas and azote 
were ascertained by means of lime water, to be, of 

Cubic Inches. 

rar1>oiiic acid gas ■ 0.1-25 

Azote 0.625 


when the barometer stood at 29,8°, and the thermometer at 
58“ — or, per gallon, of 

Cubic Inches. 

Carbonic acid gas 1 

Azote 5 


To determine the quantity of sulphuretted hy- 
drogen, the gaseous contents of sixteen ounces of 
the water were received over boiled water of (he 
temperature of 100°, and, at the conclusion of the 
process, transferred into a hot solution of nitrate of 
silver, A diminution of bulk ensued, equal to 

0.375 cubic inch ; 

making for the total quantity of sulphuretted gas, 
per gallon, 3 cubic inches. 


Llandrindod Wells, 

An idea having prevailed that the well, a few feet 
to the right in advancing to the sulphureous water, 
was stronger than the one in use, I made some 
comparative experiments ; and found, that 

Syrup of violets did not reach so dark a green ; 
neither did the nitrate of silver or acetate of lead, 
indicate so large a proportion of sulphur. 

Upon evaporating down a wine pint of the water, 
I obtained a residuum of 40 grains, or 320 grains 
per gallon. 

A wine gallon of the sulphureous water, yielded 


Tn September, 1816 ••••••« • 308, 

And in June, 1817 316 

of solid contents. 







HIS water is much used for numerous disorders, 
and forms a valuable acquisition to Llandrindod : 
the quantity of sulphuretted hydiogen is certainly 
small, yet it is sufficient to give very decided sen- 
sible properties to the water. 

Upon the commencement of a course, it occasions 
a sliglit fulness and giddiness of the head, which 
usually go off in a few days ; the water greatly pro- 
motes the excretion of urine, but does not act upon 
the bowels so readily as the saline water. 

Sulphureous waters were amongst the first no- 
ticed by the earlier writers, and we accordingly find 
various accounts respecting them, and many waters 
were suspected to contain sulphur in which it did 
not exist. 

ffUtius “ writing of natural bathes, wherein brim- 


Llandrindod Wells, 

stone is either oriely the minor or matter of them, 
or ehiefe matter thereof,” gives us the following 
account of them, which he acknowledges to have 
received from Avicenna. “ The bathes of brimstone 
soften the senewes, swage the payne that a man 
hath in desiring to goe oft unto the stoole, and 
when he commeth he can either doe little or nothing, 
they scoure and cleanse the skinne, wherefore 
they are good for the white morphew and 
blacke, for the leprosie, and for all scabs and 
scurlfes, for old sores and botches, for the fallinc^ 
oft humors into the joynts, for an hardened spleen 
or the cake in the leftside, fi*r an hardened quother, 
for all kind of palsies, for the sciatica, and for all 
kinds of itch or itching, bat the bathes of brimstone 
hurt the stomach and do marre it.” 

“ Agricohi, in his bookes of those things which 
flow out of the earth, writeth thus of bathes of 

“ The bathes of brimstone do soften the sinewes 
and doe heate, they are good therefore for palsie, 
lor places pulled in too much or stretched too farre 
forth, for the shaking and trembling of any mem- 
ber, and they swage ache, and draw out swelling 
of the limmes, and drive and scatter them away ; 
they are good therefore for the gowte in the hands, 
for the gowte in the feet, and for the sciatica, anti 
other diseases in the joynts; they swage also the 



pains in the liver, spleen, and drive away the swel- 
ling of them both ; they scowre away freckles, and 
heal morphews and scabs, but they uiidoe and 
overthrow the stomack*.’' 

It has been observed “ that there is no form of 
combination, in which sulphur is so active and so 
readily diffusible as in that of union with hydro- 
gen t Rf*d the success that has attended the use 
of sulphureous waters in many obstinate complaints, 
may with justice be attributed to this principle. 

Waters impregnated with hepatic air possess a 
stimulating property ; they are also diaphoretic and 
diuretic, and have been found very serviceable in 
chronic rheumatism, bilious complaints, and vis- 
ceral obstructions, nor is there any good reason for 
supposing that they impair the tone of the stomach, 
when taken internally , or used in the form of a 

They have frequently been recommended for 
indigestion, when the bowels are loaded with a 
viscid slimy matter ; in diseases that proceed from 

* The rare Tretisure of the Eugflish by William 

Turner, published in 1641, by William Bremer. 

-j- Sauiulors on Mineral Waters, 


Llandrindod Wells, 

leading too indolent and luxurious a life, in some 
asthmatic cases, in the gi'avel, in the scrophula 
and other diseases where the glands are swelled 
and obstructed, and have been esteemed amongst 
the best remedies for destroying and evacuating 

The drinking and bathing in these waters, more 
especially those of the hot kind, have been em- 
ployed as effectual means of removing those evils 
which follow an injudicious use of mercury; and 
which often remain after the venereal taint is gone. 
They cannot, however, be taken in all cases with 
equal safety, and should be abstained from when 
there is much inflammatory action or febrile heat. 

The stimulating effects of the sulphureous water 
at this place, are in a great measure obviated by 
the saline ingredients; and it is upon this account 
that many patients have derived advantage from it, 
more especially when united with an equal quantity 
of milk ; in chronic coughs, and troublesome expecto- 
rations from the lungs, after they had experienced 
the simple sulphureous water at Llanwriyd, to be too 
heating for them. 

Like Harrowgate and Moffat, the sulphureous 
water at Llandrindod has acquired a high reputa- 
tion in the cure of a number of cutaneous erup- 



tions, both applied externally, and taken as other 
waters ; in a few days the sulphur pervades the 
whole system, transpires through the pores of the 
skin, and silver worn in the pocket becomes tar- 

The water should be drank cold and fresh from 
the pump, when the stomach is able to bear it, 
especially in those cases where the sulphureous in- 
gredient is particularly wanted, in glasses contain- 
ing half a pint each ; two or three of these may be 
taken in the morning before breakfast, at moderate 
intervals, and repeated about noon. 

As a general rule, the patient may commence 
with two half pints, and in a short time the number 
may be increased to six or eight; if this quantity 
does not procure a determination to the bowels, the 
saline wafer should be taken two or three times 
a week, so as to prevent any unpleasant conges- 

The invalid will always derive most benefit from 
beginning with a small quantify, both as it affords 
an oppox'tunity of observing the effects of the water, 
and of regulating the dose according to the influence 
that it exerts. It will also be proper to remove any 
offensive matter from the digestive organs, by ape- 
rient medicines, previous to the commencement of 
the course. 


Llandrindod Wells, 

In some cases, the total amount taken daily may 
be larger than what I have stated, and in general, 
the longer the course is expected to last, the doses 
should be smaller and more gradually augmented. 

In several cutaneous diseases, when the intention 
is to overcome the morbid action of the skin, by the 
introduction of sulphur into the system, it will be 
most advisable to administer the water in small 
quantities, and to use the saline water occasionally, 
for the purpose ot operating on the bowels. Thus 
the sulphureous principle will not be so liable to be 
carried off, and will find its way more readily into 
the circulation, which is probably a consideration 
of much importance. 

The different combinations of mercury, and anti- 
mony, mav often form a part of the plan of treat- 
ment for cutaneous disorders ; and when they are 
found to resist the power of the water, and are 
become obstinate, the Plummer’s Pill, or the oxy- 
muriate of mercury, taken to the extent of one- 
eighth of a grain, twice a day, will frequently cause 
a change in the constitution, and promote recovery ; 
but their employment must entirely depend on the 
individual case^, and cannot be left to the judgment 
of the patient. 

The same observations that liave been made on 


Llandrindod Wells, 

the duration of the course and rules to be observed 
at the time of drinking the saline water, will apply 
here. The sulphureous water should never be drank 
at meals, or even for several hours afterwards. The 
regimen should be simple, and consist of meats 
plainly dressed, with vegetables, and the use of 
white wine and water. The patient should retire 
to rest early, and get up in the morning, faking 
more or less sleep, as he may require. 

Sleep in the day-time, especially after dinner, 
ought not to be indulged in. Moderate exercise, 
and agreeable amusements, are absolutely neces- 
sary ; but all such as heat or fatigue the body, or 
command too close an attention and application of 
the mind, are prejudicial. 

The sulphureous water is much assisted in its 
efficacy by the aid of the warm bath ; and upon the 
methods of using this, it may be proper to say a 
few words. 

The bath is prepared by adding to the fresh 
water, a sufficient quantity of water that has been 
made hot, to bring it to the desired temjierature ; 
and, for this purpose, the vessels shouKl be lined 
wilh (in, as the sulphureous principle is less liable 
to be decomposed by that metal ihan any other. 



Tlie 'Warm bath requires to be employed with 
some caution, on account of the determination that 
it occasions to the head. 

It is decidedly a stimulus to the heart and arteries, 
more especially to the vessels of the skin; and the 
perspiration that it excites should be kept up for an 
hour, by confining the patient in bed, or in a warm 

The sulphureous warm bath is of great service 
in herpetic eruptions, attended with a constant 
desquatr ation of the cuticle in dry branny scales," 
in the scurvy, and many leprous affections ; it gives 
relief in spasmodic diseases, and in contractions 
of the bowels, accompanied with constipation : in 
chronic rheumatism; in gouty complaints ; in the 
hypochondriasis; and paralysis of the limbs. 

By the increased action which the heat excites 
on the surface of the body, it relieves internal ob- 
structions; and by the relaxation which it produces, 
very much facilitates the passage of biliary caiculi> 
It allays nervous irritation, and induces sleep. 

“ The warm bath is, upon the whole, a safer 
remedy than the cold, aud may be resorted to even 



Llandrindod Well?. 

when there is a considerable degree of acute 
fever*. ’’ 

The bath may be used on the days of drinking 
the water, in the morning, at noon, or in the even- 
ing; but always upon an empty stomach; and of 
these, the morning is the most preferable. 

The degree of heat must vary, according to the 
circumstances of the case, from 92° to 98 *, and the 
temperature must be increased or diminished, as the 
nature of the disease may require. In general, a 
bath at the temperature of 92° Fah. will be most 
advantageous; but in “paralysis the heat may be 
as high as it can be conveuienlly borne f.’' 

The time of remaining in the hath must be de- 
termined by the age and constitulion of the patient, 
and may extend from eight or ten, to twenty minutes. 

The vapour bath can be made of a higher tem- 
perature than the water hath ; it acts much in the 
■same manner, vi/. as a stimulus ; and it relaxes the 
skin and system in general. 

When the seat of debility and stiffness is local, 
and confined to a particular joint great benefit will 
be derived from pumping on the part, and the sub- 
sequeut use of friction. 

Dr. Saunders. 

"t Dr, Saunderi. 



The slime, or mud, collected from the chaonel 
over which the water flows, has been esteemed as 
an outward remedy for old wounds and ill-condi- 
tioned ulcers ; and this practice of dressing sores 
with the mud from particular Avaters, appears to be 
of very ancient date. Mnck benefit could not be 
expected from it, and certainly the curds (that are 
now substituted) obtained by boiling together equal 
parts of the sulphureous water and milk, form a 
more elegant application.*^ . 

* Dr. Linden’s observations on the sulphur water, are 
very curious and instructive, and his directions for making it 
into a bath, highly necessary to be known j but as those ob- 
servations and directions apply to sulphur waters generally 
we shall introduce them elsewhere, when treating of similar 
springs. \ 


. / 








The eye water issues from the same rock as the 
saline carbonated chalybeate, and forms a small 
well, rising from between the crevices of the rock, 
and discharging its waters into the brook. It has 
never been inclosed, and is subject to great altera- 
tion, both in its temperature and the proportion of 
its solid contents, from the influence of the atmo- 
sphere, and the vicissitudes of the seasons. 

This watfer differs chiefly from the other snrings, 
in containing sulphuric acid in a combined state, 
and in the quantity of muriate of magnesia, which 
exceeds that of the muriate of lime. 

I expected to find a sulphate of iron and sulphate 
of alumina produced by the decomposition of the 
iron pyrites and aluminous schistus ; but could not 



discover that either of them entered into the com- 
position of the water. 

When taken up fresh from the well, the water is 
rather milky and opaque, it sends forth no air bub- 
bles or perceptible smell. To the taste it is saline, 
and devoid of the briskness that makes the saline 
water so agreeable to the stomach. 

In 181 6, the temperature of the well varied from 
60" to 64°. 

The specific gravity of the fresh water was 1002* 

* Mr. Williams bas here, as in the other waters, stated hi* 
experiments, and given the medicinal qualities of the 
Eye Water J but as its very designation implies the service 
for which it is destined, we shall no longer detain the reader, 
especially as our mutilated copy of Mr. Williams’s woik i* 
deprived of its last two leaves, which treat of Eye Water, 




North, and to the North East, 



Escaped, at length, from the medical depart- 
ment of this place, which, alth ugh undoubtedly the 
most useful, may be the least entertaining-, we now 
hope to refresh the reader by an introduction to the 
scenic, the pictorial, and literary portion of it. 

A ride or drive due north, and afterwards inclining 
easterly, for four miles leads to what may be con- 
sidered a miracle in this district — a genteel Village ; 
for such Pen y-Bont most assuredly is, although on 
a confined scale. Through it runs the London road, 
rendered lively by the daily passing of coaches ; and 
across it, the river Ithon, remarkable for its pictur- 
esque meanderings, and the excellence of its numer- 
ous scaly inhabitants. At its western end, the London 
road to Cardiganshire is crossed by another turn- 
pike, which forms the straight communication be- 
tween north and south Wales, From this intersection 
the Rhaiader and Newtown roads the gentlemen 


Llandrindod Wells, 

of the neighbouring estates, assisted by the Radnor- 
shire Trustees are forming a new line of road 
towards Rliaiader, which will be nearly level and 
much shorter than the present one. Considering 
the great labour and expence of the undertaki 
this will ceitainly be one of the greatest improve- 
ments ever made in this country. It will be finished, 
if possible, by the spring of 1826. The first object 
that strikes us on entering Pon-y-Ront, is a neat 
residence on the left, with an agreeable southerly 
aspect, standing on' an elevated bank, with a meadow 
before, backed by plantations. It is the pioperty of 
Middleton Jones, Esq., proprietor of two of the 
Llandrindod spiings. Looking suddenly to the right, 
we are agreeably struck with a pleasing sight, the 
truly elegant mansion of J. C. Severn, Esq., presents 
its respectable front, well sheltered witli considerable 
plantations, and cdiastely ornamented with tasteful 
walks, well-dressed flowery lawns and a beautiful 
sheet of water, Lower down, on the leftside of the 
road stands the Severn Arms Inn, and Post Oflice, a 
superior looking tenement, where the coat lies change 
horses. It is kept by Mr. Parton, who by his atten- 
tion, civility, and good accomodation gives the best 
assurance that he merits the good success he meets 
in his business. A few yards lower down is the 
bridge over the Ithon, which gives name to the 
Village, as Pen-y-Bont signifies Head of the Bridge, 
Over the bridge are some respectable looking shops, 
and bumble dwellings. The rapidity with which. 


Llandrindod Wells, 

this Village sprung into existence, the maturity of 
its appearance speak decisively for the taste and 
perseverance of the projector, J. C: Severn, Esq., 
whose mansion, the principal object in it, was com- 
pleted only in 1818 , The Village, it is true, ex- 
isted many years ago, but in a comparative rude 
state, at which time, strange to say, the Radnor- 
shire Bank was established here by the late John 
Price, Esq., a very eccentric and enterprising 
character, who possessed the great merit of being 
“ the architect of his own fortune” having risen to 
affluence and honour entirely by his own industry, 
which placed him at last, at the head of an exten- 
sive banking firm, and the master of a well-earned, 
enviable independence. Pen-y-Bont is in the parish 
of Llanbadarn Vawr,* the church of which lies oa 

* There are many churches thus called in Wales, but the 
principal of all is Llanbadarn Vawr, near Aberystwith, Car- 
diganshire. It signifies Great Padern Church, from « 
celebrated saint so named. Cressy, and Archbishop Usher say 
“ the sanctity of St. Dubricius and St. David drew into Brit- 
ain from foreign parts, St. Paternus, a devout young man, 
about the year 516, together with 847 monks, who fixed them- 
selves with him in a place called Mauritania, which was 
raised to the dignity of an episcopal see, which he governed 
for 21 years j from him it was called Paternensis. He was 
recalled into his own native country of lesser Britanny, where 
he was made Bishop of Vannes, leaving Kinoc as his succeior 
to the former Bishopric". Mauritania is said to be a latinized 
name of Llanbadarn Vawr. A further account of him will be- 
given when we treat of Aberystwith; 



the road from Llandrindod here, about three miles 
from the former, and from hence one. It is a rectory 
valued at about £250. per Annum. 

Near Llanbadarn Vawr, is a very picturesque 
alpine bridge called Pont-y-Graig, over the Ilhon, 
which the visitors of Llandrindod often go to see 
and take Sketches. Instead of the road to New 
Radnor, we shall now take a straight northern 
course from Llandrindod, about four miles from 
which, commences a beautiful private road, made 
at the exp.ence of Mr. Severn, and two neighbour- 
ing gentlemen, which continues about three miles, 
and is tcjrminated by an old Manor House and Park, 
the property of that gentlemen in right of Mrs. 
Severn, called Devanner Park. It is a venerable 
and most picturesque pile, once it seems, the re- 
sidence of Cambrian royalty, but afterwards granted 
by Rhys, Prince of Wales to a convent of Cistercian 
monks, and on the dissolution of religious houses, 
in the lime of Henry VHl,, granted by the crown 
to the Fowler family ; the male branch of which, 
has long been extinct. In the reign of James II. 
Devanner House was the residence of Sir William 
Fowler, whose very extensive manor of Gollen, and 
the principal part of his posessions in this 
Country, now belong also to Mr. Severn, in right 
of his lady. It was the occasional residence of 
Sir William, Sir Hans, and Sir Richard Fowler. 
Hans, Earl of Huntingdon was born here, and his 


Llandrindod Wells, 

elder brother killed, while a boy, by the kick of a 
horse. This venerable and interesting vestige of 
antiquity has been restored by Mr. Severn to a re- 
semblance of its ancient state, a circumstance that 
cannot fail to insure the applause of all men of taste 
especially those, who are enthusiastic admirers of^ 
our picturesque remains of antiquity. 

Three miles north from Pen-y-Bont is Llandewi 
Ystradenny, a small Village, situate in a narrow vale 
near the river Ithon, containing a few straggling 
houses; and the church, a tolerable structure, con- 
sisting of a nave and chancel, with two small 
tablets, in commemoration of Phillips and Burton; 
the worthlessness of the latter has been softened 
by the pen of sycophancy into an eccentric 
character”; but if the small tablet" which re- 
cords both his existancc and death were meant to 
typify his littleness of soul, it would be difficult 
to find one diminutive enough. He resided here, 
very penuriously, in a large old house, and possessed 
a considerable estate in the neighbourhood, which, 
to the exclusion of his relatives, because they were 
poor, he basely devised to a wealthy provincial ! 
If there is a scoundrel baseness, a mental degrada- 
tion marking the most decided abjectness of soul, 
surpassing all others in its abuses of the social 
compact, it is an heartless, cold-blooded act like 
this, which often leaves to waste, in corrosive rust, 
the brightest link iu the chain of consanguinity — 



the poor helpless one, the lost sheep of the fold ! 
It illustrates to the life, the trutlvof character ex- 
emplified in that doemon of selfishness, Massenger’s 
hero, Sir Giles Overreach ; who is made to say — 

“ We wordly men, when we see friends and kinsmen 
Past hope, sunk in their fortunes, lend no hand 
To lift them up, hut rather set our feet 
Upon their heads, to press them to the bottom.” 

Ben Jonson, too, in his “Staple of News” hat 
a passage much in point 

“ Virtue and Honesty — hang’em! 

Poor thin membranes of honor — who respeets thena ? 

Oh the fates ! 

How hatli all jnst, true reputation fallen, 

Since money, this base money, ’gan to hare anr !” 

Since it is to the purpose, I make no apology fo. 
<luoting the following Stanzas from an unpublishe. 
Comic Poem of mine, called, “ Davydd ab Gwilym,' 
which I intend shortly to print in a work that wi' 
hear the title of “ The Worthies of Wale? 
eclebrated in Various Historical Poems.” 

“ Here 1 think it needful to observe. 

And I remark it with a winning grin. 

As well such sore place truly may deserve. 

The strangeness of relations to their kin, 

tVhose narrow fortunes bid them lennly carve, 

Poverty alone their deadly sin : 

(Not that mine have left me so to starve. 


Llandrindod Wells, 

For I have independence — that’s within :) 

To those in afluence, hig'h state, and station, ^ 

What a curst eyesore a poor relation. 

Pride, or shame, which ever it may he. 

Will prompt them, sometimes to he wonderous civil. 

To send them to a distance oft' — to sea — 

Could wishes do it, even to the devil ; 

Out of the world, at any rate : for me, 

I can’t swear mine are quite so sunk in evil. 

The rich and heartless one, hut power lacks 

To shoot such scrubs, as Planters do the blacks. 

It is not to be regretted that such a man as this 
Burton, should have a record of liis “having been,” 
although his merit could never entitle him even to 
the Idle Man’s epitaph, 

“ He lived — and then he died.” 

It is to be hoped that no mistaken zeal or blind 
resentment, like that of the Irishman’s, who burnt 
the bank notes to be revenged of the bankers, will 
induce men of a contrary character to pull down 
the tablet, as it will suit admirably to “point a 
moral,” if not “to adorn a tale.” 

In this district are several vestiges of antiquity, 
particularly the Gaer, or fortification which occu- 
pies the summit] of a high hill, close to the village, 
a camp of \ great extent, inaccessible on the Ithon 
side; the remainder] is defended by two parallel in- 
trenchments, probably the work of some of the 
Mortimers, or, as some conjecture, of Cadwalou in 


Llandrindod Wells, 

tjie twelfth century. On a hill opposite is Bedd 
Ygre, Ygre's grave, a large mound, or 'tumulus of 
earth, encompassed by a small moat. Of this de- 
scription were all the monuments which the ancient 
Britons erected in honor of their Chiefs, or great 
men; and these continued many ages after the in- 
troduction of Christianity ; but when the custom 
of burying in churches, and church yards l)ecame 
general, they were discontinued, and afterwards used 
chiefly for criminals. From the top of Bedd Ygre 
there is a very extensive prospect, and the spot 
has lately been very ranch improved by Mr. Severn, 
of I’en-y-Bont, who has made a very fine plan- 
tation between it and l.laiidewi. Several of this 
gentleman's estates, in the neighbourhood, bear the 
name of Bedd Ygre. 

Abb ough vehemently despising the sickening 
strains of adulation so frequently tendered bv 
needy writers at the shrine of the “wealthy worth- 
less,” 1 feel happy to yield my humble mite of 
approbation of those who are a blessing to any 
country so fortunate as to possess them, that evince 
by their works their just claim to our admiration 
and gratitude: that Mr. Severn is pre-emineu;ly 
such, is a homely truism to which a great portion of 
this long neglected country bears honorable rvituess. 
In addition to the improvements made and continual 
ly making on his own extensive estates, Iladnorshire 
is much indebted to his spirited in lefatigable and 



successful exertions. The gentlemen in this country 
generally arc much to be commended for recent 
improvements on the turnpike roads, in which they 
have been liberally aided by the Radnorshire trust. 
Thusthe road between Newtown and Llandrindod 
forming the long and much wanted commiinication 
between north and south Wales has been accomplish- 
ed between them, and the Montgomeryshire trustees, 
and opened about two years ago. It is but justice 
to add, that the latter gentlemen are continually 
adding to their improvements on it. We have now 
3n unimpeded conveyance from the Wye to the Severn, 
a direct carriage road from the liristol Channel, 
through Brecon, Buillli, Newtown, &c. to Chester. 

Two miles from Be,<l(l Ygre, on a small elevation 
stood the Castle of Cymaron, of which not a frag- 
ment of the superstructure remains ; the site and 
moat arc still visible. This fortress is supposed to 
have been erected by the Normans, in the eleventh 
century, but soon after destroyed by the WeUh, 
and again rebuilt by Hugh, the son of Randolph, 
earl of Chester, in 1142, when Maclienydd became 
subject to the Normans. 

In 1171-, Cadwallon ap Madawc obtained this 
castle and lordship, for which he did homage to 
tienry ; but Roger Mortimer, having raised a con- 
■siderable force ill 1104, entered Maelienydd, and 
4ltcr various battles dispossessed Cadwallon of all 



liis lauds in this districi, and fortified the castle of 

In this family it eviiiently continued for ages, as we 
find, near two centuries after that Roger Mortimer, 
in 1360 died, possessed of the castles of Cnuelas, 
G wyrlhrinion, Cwiudeudd wr, Maclienydd, and 
Pilleth, in the same lordship, which perhaps, on 
the demise of I’rincs Llewelyn, in 1?82, Edward 
the First confirmed as a legal inheritance. Henry 
tlie Eightii, however, being of a Welsh extraction, 
curtailed the, power and aiiihitiou of tjie provincial 
lords, and redressed many grievances to which 
the Welsii were before subject; and divided the 
principality into counties and hundreds, with the 
same laws and privileges as his English subjects. 
About tliree miles ftom Liandewi, is the small 
village of I.Ianbisier, couiaiuiiig nothing remark- 
ahle, we next come to another sm.ill village called 
Llanhatlarn Vynidd, where whirfs have been lately 
established, for the sale «f ooal, slate, and other 
materials which come to Newtown by the Mont- 
gomeryshire canal Between Llan bister and Llan- 
badarn Vyitidd, about two miles to the left of the 
road is Crychell the property of Evan St&phens, Esq., 
of New'tow'n. Near Newtown stands the ancient 
mansion of Newtown Hall, the properly and resi- 
dence of the Rev. Mr. Evors Newtowm has no- 
thing imposing in its appearance, although it has 
risen surprisingly within these few years by the 


Llandrindod Wells, 

fla iinel manufactories. Tlie buildings are increased 
to treble tbeir former number; and the natives liave 
now to boast of a canal, steam-engines, and very 
considerable manufactories; while their markets aie 
always thronged to excess. Here we rest awhile, 
and hasten to close this article on Llandrindod, 
the rest of the rides from which, appertain more 
immediately to Llandcgley and Blaen Edw Wells. 

From information received since Writing the 
article headed “ A brief history of Llandrindod,” 
it will be necessary to add, that the premature 
demolition of Llandrindod Hall took place by the 
o.dersof the then proprietor, the late Mr. Jones 
of Pen-cerrig, who deeming his property become 
the resort of profligate noblemen, jockies, black- 
legs, and all descriptions of elegant swindlers, 
caused it, from religious scruples, to be pulled 
down, fearing that, to punish their enormites, a 
judgement would befall the place. 1 have not 
been able to learn what became of Mr. Grosvenor 
or his family; but it is conjectured that he returned 
to Shrewsbury. He had an only daughter, of 
whose eccenjricities there are here many anecdotes 
afloat among the old people. It seems she was both 
a spirited and an accomplished girl, a belle, a 
beauty, and a toast, though rather of a masculine 
turn in the selection of her amusements. She 
excelled in horsemanship, and w'as so expert a 
rider, that, in the chase neither hedges, ditches 



or rivers, could prevent her from being in ut the 
death. It is related that at one time she crossed 
the Wye after the hounds when the river was much 
flooded, and while the sportsmen stood hesitating 
on the bank, she laughed at their timidity, dashed 
across the stream, calling out, “ come along 
gentlemen ! I’m determined to be in at the death 
and kept her word^ accordingly. She is also said 
to have played with taste and skill on the harp and 
piano, and possessed a good voice; but in these 
accomplishments she discovered her usual eccentric 
fancy in the choice of her songs, one of which, 
a satire on her own sex, has been handed down to 
us by the name of “ The Caution,” which I lately 
met accidentally in an old song book : and as it has 
some merit, especially in the last stanza, it is here 
presented to the reader. She is said to have sung 
it with much archness, and pointed satirical 

“ From sweet bewitching tricks of lore 
Young men your hearts secure. 

Lest from the paths of sense you rove 
In dotage premature : 

Look at each lass 
Through window’s glass, 

Nor trust the naked eye ; 

Gallants beware. 

Look sharp, take care. 

The blind eat many a fly. 


Llandrindod Wells. 

Not only on their hands and necks 
The' borrow’d white you’ll find-, , 
Some belles, when interest directs 
Can even paint the mind ; 

Joy in distress ■ 

They can express, 

Their very tears can lie ; , 

Gallants beware. 

Look sharp, take care. 

The blind eat many a fly. 

There’s not a spinster in the realm. 
But all mankind can cheat, 

Down tdthe cottag-e from the helm. 

The learn’d, the brave, and great; 
' With lovely looks. 

And golden hooks 
To entangle each they try: 

Gallants beware. 

Look sharp, take care, > 
The blind eat marvy a fly. ^ 

Could we with ink the ocean fill. 

Was earth of parchment made. 

Was every single stick a quill. 

Each man a scribe by trade ; 

To write the tricks 
Of half the sex 
Would suck that ocean dry : 

Gallants beware. 

Look sharp, take care. 

The blind eat many a* fly.” 








That the title of this article will excite the 
surprise of many, is to be expected, and the 
indignation of those who are interested in opposing 
such discoveries no less certain, to whom it will be 
high treason perhaps, to doubt the infallibility ot 
Mr. Martin’s book.* I am far from thinking Mr. 
Martin’s work was written to favor the views of 
great monopolists, although it may have that effect, 
and prevent inquiries into the existence of those 
minerals in other districts than those, which are said 
to contain them. In one thing the people of Radnor- 

♦ On the progress of the veins and strata, Theophilus 
Jones says “ the principal source of our subterranean wealth 
arises from our contiguity to what Mr. Martin calls the South 
Wales mineral bason, a map of which has been lately 
published, in the philosophical transactions, but which I 
should rather call a mineral marrow spoon, to which it bears 
a greater resemblance.” For further information of the in- 
terest, on this subject Vide Jones's Breconshire, vol. 11. 
Page 761. 


Llandrindod Wells, 

sliire are to be particularly cautioned, which is, 
to place no credence whatever in the reports of 
the agents who may be sent from different collieries, 
ostensibly, to examine, but in reality to put the 
question to sleep by plausible cant, and a vast deal 
of jargon about the formation of the coal basin, 
which they assert, could never, by any possibility, 
extend to this country ; or that if it did, must of 
necessity stand some miles aloft in the air ! which, 
perhaps, is true enough, according to their system, 
but systems in this age of inquiry, sometimes prove 
erroneous and fall to the ground. There is a very 
general report that the last person who came here 
to examine for mines was bribed by persons inter- 
ested in the Brecon Canal ; and the probability of 
its being a fact is not without colour. It is not to 
be wondered at, if the parties who are making 
immense, nay, princely fortunes, by the Iron Works 
and Collieries of Wales, should spend thousands of 
pounds, to prevent the discovery of coal and iron 
stone at Llandrindod. With this consideration, it is 
to be hoped the juggling of disguised hirelings will 
not in future be successful. Their usual trick is, 
to fix on places of the least probability to make 
their search, and practice their knavery on the land 
proprietors by prolonging the job, so as to increase 
the expence, and ultimately disgusting them from 
any further, or future inquiry. 

Dr. Linden’s knowledge of Melallurgy, and his 
universal acquaintance with mines, although but 



au early chemist, are well evinced throughout his 
works, from which I mean merely to give a few ex- 
tracts on the present subject.without any comment, 
so that the reader may draw his own conclusions : 
although the absence of lime stone here would induce 
me to dissent from the learned Doctor’s opinion. 

“ Now I come to prove the existence of that 
mineral called Pit coal, well known to the inhabitants 
of Great Britain, being in general use and esteem 
among'st them for fuel ; but this being unheard 
of, or at least never found in these parts, I shall 
meet with nothing but incredulity. Even the 
inhabitants of Llandrindod, though the coal dis- 
covers itself both to the taste and smell, and 
though they are in the utmost want of this useful 
fossil) will not willingly credit me ; nay I appre- 
hend their censure for bringing the principle of 
coal mines into their darling fountain. I would be 
understood to mean that a purgative chalybeate, 
such as the Llandrindod rock water, strains through 
beds of coal, or is to be met with in every coal 
pit, which would be absurd, for I am well aware 
that such a water as percolates over coal is no 
way fit for medical purposes, but it is a poisonous 
emetic. Nevertheless I aver and pronounce in be rightly understood in w'hat I am going 
to prove from real facts, that a saline chalybeate 
water is in no corner of. the world to be met with, 
nay cannot possible exist, unless the rarefied damps 


Llandrindod Wells, 

at least witbiii two miles distance from a bed of 
coal, come in subterraneous passages, and intervene 
with the generative matters that constitute such 
a water. Dr. Henkel was the first who was of 
opinion that no sort of salts could exist, or be 
generated in the bowels of the earth, unless assisted 
by coal damps. Jfle made the discovery of changing 
iron ore into perfect coal, and coal again into what salt 
he pleased. He remarked that coal was seldom found 
without iron-stone, and had likewise observed, how 
shortly coal altered its bed, provided it happened to 
be ventilated with a strong current of damps, 
rushing through subterraneous passages. Let us 
range all Europe over, and we shall find the greater 
part of sah*)e chalybeate waters, seated within two 
or three miles of collieries, and the rest at the same 
or less distance from saline springs, out of which 
common English salt may be made. Let us examine 
the terrestrious matter, which is precipitated, or 
separated in the making of all kitchen salt, w hether 
it be crystallized out of Rock salt, sea water, or 
a salt spring, and we shall ahvays pei’ceive, in this 
matter, a snccinated scent, or a smell like that, 
which is emitted from yellow amber. And for 
further proof we shall find therein a real asphaltas, 
such as is common to, or concomitant with all pit- 
coal, the Pembrokeshire culm excepted. Culm 
properly speaking, is a black lime stone, plentifully 
impregnated with sulphureous damps. Hence it is 
that culm hasactiially been a limestone, and that it is 



changed into a slate, similar to coal, is immediately 
proved by smelting it with lead ore, when the 
essential properties and characteristics of lime 
appear. The aluminous mineral, and salt springs 
are always certain signs of coal being in the 
neisubourhood. A foetid sulphureous fountain, is 
again, another sign of coal ; and in the neighbour- 
hood of Llandrindod, there are to my knowledge four 
or five of them. Turbaries, again, are the effect of 
damps, and exhalations of coal : and as I have 
met with several other certain indications of that 
fossil, in the neighbourhood of Llandrindod, I hope 
the inhabitants will soon be blessed with it. Nor 
is it to be doubted, since it stands confirmed by- 
experience that these effluvia pervade all mineral 
beds, and by those means agitate the different in- 
gredients, that enter the composition of salt, excite 
their mixture, and bring on an union of parts ; 
and as this agitation lasts as long as the damps act 
uninterrupted, so the water is supplied w'ith a new- 
generated salt. For was the saline matter washed 
from a particular bed, as from a magazine, it would 
be emptied and worn away in space of time; but 
that it is supplied by the mediation of these 
effluvia has been verified and experienced in many 
places, where the saline principles have become de- 
ficient, nay ceased, whenever the exhaltations have 
been interrupted in the subterranean caverns. Thus 
far 1 think, is suflicient to prove that coal daiii|)s 


Llandrindod Wells, 

have a share in generating and finishing the rock 
water ; and that this spring would entirely be 
divested of salt,. was it not for the effluvia of coal, 
that mix with the other generative and productive 
matter which constitutes this w'ater." Asain the 
Doctor says, “ about two miles north from the me- 
dical springs I expect a bed of coal : indeed it is 
the greatest astonishment to me imaginable, that 
there has been no attempt made to find out this 
valuable fossil in that neighbourhood, when the 
great book of nature gives us the most certain in- 
dications of its existence there. For whenever 
there is brine or water that will make common salt, 
there is certainly coal through that zonic.” Again 
he remarks, “ this mineial bitumen is certainly 
the effect of coals, that are contained in the mineral, 
zonic of Llandrindod, and I donbt not in the least 
but that the beds of coal in this zonic range a great 
way, aud that they have their natural connexion 
with other collieries of South Wales.” There are 
many observations scattered throughout the pages 
of Dr. Linden’s work, to prove the existence of 
Iron Stone at Llandrindod, bat the following 
extracts shall suffice for all. “ As to the existence 
•f Iron Stone at Llandrindod, I hope no one will 
question it, especially since the slate rock, out of 
"which this water springs, abounds therewith, which 
the most common experiment in metallurgy will 
make evident.” 




About six miles north-east of Llandrindod, and 
two miles from Pen-y-Bont, on the high road to New 
Radnor, stands the village of Llandegley, remarka- 
ble for its antique church and the beauty of its ad- 
jacent scenery, and still more for two mineral springs, 
which never have been noticed by either historian 
or tourist. Those small travellers yclept tourists, 
very ranch resemble the commentators on Shake- 
spear, described by Young, 

“ VVtio hold their farthing rush-light to the Sun. 

treating only on those subjects and places already 
well known, while many an objr’Ct worthy of note, 
and of high interest to the public, are passed with- 
out a record. In the present day, Bingley’s North 
Wales, Malkin’s South Wales, and Nicholson’s Tra- 
veller’s Guide, are the only works whose fidelity of 
description and general correctness can be depend- 
ed on. The miserable shil'ts, and continually at the 
cxpeuce of truth, to make the book enUriainivg, 



Llandegley Wells, 

which characterised “ Warner’s Walk tliroush 
Wales,” have been partly exposed in Jones’s “Bre- 
conshire,” but not half as far as merited. The 
work generally evinces the dandy English parson 
rusticating in '.Yales, and might have been written 
W’ith erpcal correclness within the rules of the King’s 
Bench, by a person who had never seen Wales. But 
even Malkin seems to have been unaware of the ex- 
istence of these waters, although he has mentioned 
those of Blaen-Eiiw, and given the following account 
of this place. It wilt he observed, he describes the 
road from Nen Radnor to.virds Rhaiader. “It is 
very dull till within a short distance of Llandegley, 
when a prospect presents itself, of rich enclosures, 
hemmed in on all sides by a /ence of dark, high, and 
rocky hills. The road itself is pleasingly circum- 
stanced as it passes under the shadow of a rough 
and magnificent promontory. The village of Llan- 
degley consists of very few houses, but those few 
are rather interestingly placed ; while the obliging 
manners of the people, in furnishing local informa- 
tion, with a degree of intelligence rather superior to 
what might have been expected from their condition, 
almost make a stranger regret, that the accommo- 
dations of the little inn are insufficient to admit of 
his lengthening his visit. I have more than once re- 
marked the decency of manners, approaching almost 
(o politeness, that distinguishes the lower classes 
of inhabilaiiJs in the principality. 1 do not know 
• Ir.n Radnorshire yields to any county in this parti- 



ciilar ; and the attentions an Englishman experiences 
are not less acceptable, for being proffered in the 
English language. The adclrless of the hosts and 
their fiimilies, both at New Radnor and Llandegley, 
but particularly the latter, was highly to their credit, 
though thev were in both cases very small farmers, 
with very litlle besides civility to offer their guests. 
Here especially, and in a very considerable degree 
elsewhere, I observed the grace with which the 
women perform the olKce of attendance at table, 
always presenting any article demanded with that 
sort of self collected obeisance, so much noticed by 
travellers through France in damsels of the same 
description. In both cases, this Siijvcriority of de- 
port meni is probably acquired in some degree by 
the universal and frequent practice of dancing. 
While I am on the subject of provincial peculiarities, 
I will just mention an instance in proof of that 
quaintly figurative phraseology, to wdiich 1 have 
before alluded as characteristic of the people. My 
landlord, in shewing me the site of Radnor Gastle, 
expatiated largely ou its ancient consequence, and 
informeil me, with respect io the warlike implements 
occasionally dug out, that they consisted of battle- 
axes, cannon-balls, and conjectures of a great many 
other things. Tiiis concise application ot the word 
conjecture, in place of a sentence, ajqieared to me 
both originaland appropriate; things of which the 
uses, as unknown to modern times, were merely 


Llandegley Wells, 

The inn here, is called the Burton Arms, from 
the proprietor Edward Burton, Esq. of Shrewsbury ; 
kept by a person named Boulter. As to the assidui- 
ti«s at this inn, with the good manners and charac- 
ter of the people, I can myself bear witness, with 
the addition, that the accommodations are very su- 
perior to those above described, and the “ little 
inn,” is larger and kept by different people. The 
reader may be assured that a few visitors who may 
wish to drink these waters and reside awhile, may 
be very creditably accommodated at the Burton 
Arras, or Llandegley House, as they sometimes call 
the inn. Mrs. Boulter is not only very obliging, and 
her fare good, but she possesses considerable capa- 
city in making her visitors comfortable ; and it is to 
be regretted that so good a manager has not a better 
field to exert her talents in. 

The wells are two; one a very strong sulphu- 
reous spring, lies in a meadow facing the inn, the 
other, a chalybeate, a few yards to the west, on the 
bank of a brook, over which is a rustic bridge, and 
canopied by the trunk and branches of an old alder 

The sulphureous spring has a hut tiled with slates 
built over it, and the water is received from a spout 
into a large stone trough, in which the people have 
been accustomed to bathe. If, in compliment to the 
established celebrity of other sulphureous springs, 



more is recorded of their merits, it is not because 
Llandenley is in any degree inferior, as I doubt 
much if there is a spring in Wales more strongly 
impregnated with sulpliur than this. l.o avoid te- 
dious repetitions, the instructions which are given 
for drinking, or bathing in the Llanwrtyd water will 
apply equally to, this, as, being a sulphur water 
like that, it is efficacious for the same complaints. 
For the scrophula, and cutaneous diseases gener- 
ally, it has often proved a successful remedy, and 
families from the counties of Hereford and Worces- 
ter, have long been in the habit of sending for 
curs^ocs of it, in jars, casks, and bottles packed in 

The other spring is a strong, but simple chaly- 
beate, neither asciclulous, sulphureous, nor saline 
to the taste, but precisely like that spring at Aber- 
ystwith, when it is not mixed with the sea-water, 
which is rarely the case, and only at the time of 
high tide^. The spirits are excited, and the appe- 
tite improved by a perseverance in its rule; and in 
a variety of disorders where steel may be required, 
it Avill prove of great service. It is recommended 
to be drank fasting at eight o’clock in the morning, 
and again between breakfast and dinner, gradually 
increasing the dose according to the age or habit. 
As there is no saline water here, the jiatient, above 
all things must provide himself with aperient physic, 
OF the chalybeate water would be extremely dange- 


Llandegley Wells, 

rous. Dr. Saunders in his excellent “ Treatise on 
Mineral ’Waters," justly observes, “some of the 
most valuable springs belong to this class," for a 
further account see Mr; Williams’s Analysis of the 
Chalybeate Spring at Aberystwith, and his instruc- 
tion for drinking it, will answer equally for this. 

If the proprietor of Llandegley, chose to build 
and adorn the place a little, it could not fail of be- 
coming the resort of the fashionable and the ailing. 
Like Pen-y-Bont, it is enlivened by the passing of 
coaches, and travellers on the high road, and stands 
half way between Llandrindod and New Radnor, 
about six or seven miles from each. At the distance 
of two or three fields from the back of the inn at 
Llandegley, commences a chain of rugged hills, 
called Llandegley Rocks, from which, on a clear 
day, there is a very extensive prospect. From these 
rocks tolerable fine spar is sometimes dug, but al- 
though armed with a heavy pick-axe, which I 
shouldered up the first hill on a very sultry day, I 
met with but very scrubby specimens, but I have 
known many of the Llandrindod visitors more 
fortunate. The church and churchyard here are 
very neat. The origin of the name of Llandegley is 
thus accounted for, by Jones, in his History of 
Brecknockshire. Speaking first of Llandegley in 
his own county, he says, “ St. Tetta, to whom this 
church is dedicated, was sister to Elhelard, who 
succeeded Ina, king of the West Saxons iu 726, she 



was abbess of Wiobourne, in Dorsetshire, and the 
spiritual mothir of Tecla, the patroness of Llandegley, 
or rather Llandegla, in Radnorshire. Ecton calls 
her St. Ddetty, from which mode of spelling, it 
should seem, he thought her to have been a British 
saint, but the Welsh know no such person, and are 
strangers alike to the fame of her sanctity, and to 
her miracles, or to the gesls of her disciples, as re- 
lated by Cressy. 


■ HIS IS the uncouth, though English, name of a 
considerable waterfall, which lies about four miles 
from Llandegley, and one from New Radnor, to the 
north of the turnpike road. It was my lot to visit it 
at a very inauspicious time, when the heat of sum- 
mer had almost dried up the mountain brook which 
forms it. Instead of falling from a height, as a 
stranger would naturally expect, we trace the brook 
along the lowest part of the mountain, and suddenly 
perceive a yawning gulph, down which the waters 
throw themselves. As there is neither rock nor 
tree to hold by, to look down were dangerous, as the 
footing is far from sure ; but by a circuitous turn 
we are enabled to ‘descend, and enter the eastern. 


Llandegley Wells, 

end of the gulph, and face the fall, which, is from a 
precipice of seventy feet in perpendicular height. 
When the stream is copious, the appearance would, 
doubtless, be very imposing, or as the tourists say, 
“ awfully grand, imposing on the fancy a ming’ed 
sensation of terror and delight.” To add interest 
to the scene, a few larches, mountain ash, and va- 
rious under-wood, (which travellers generally call 
“ wild shrubbery growing spontaneously out of the 
rocks”) have been planted, to soften the savage sides 
of this chasm. Mr. Malkin says, “abut or two 
is the only sign of society, an<l there is none of ve- 
getation.” Then time has certainly wrought a great 
change, for I could scarcely find a pendant crag or 
yard oft ground, but what was animated with breath- 
ing life,-^fearless merry beings 'skipping from rock 
to rock, sporting in and out of the deepest wrinkles 
on the brow of danger— in fact, a very numerous 
society of — rabhits. And instead of the “few huts,” 
a very decent dwelling, surrounded with several ma- 
ture Scotch fir (which the traveller must have forgot) 
called the Warren House. '1 hus, a great poition of 
the mountain in the neighbourhood of Water*break- 
its neck, has been converted into a rabbit-warren, 
by Thomas Franklin Lewis, Esq. M. P. which, tends . 
much to enliven a spot, otherwise savage, dull, and 
dreary. From the height above the chasm, in con- 
trast to the brown mountain, a lively green valley, 
cultivated and threaded with waters presents itself, 
terminated by the town of ^ew Radnor, which cer- 



tainly shews much better in perspective than when 

A singular looking hill called the Whimble, partly 
intercepts the view ; it is a very striking object, and 
it is said that Mr. Lewis has tried in vain to plant it. 
A misty turban on the brows of the Whimble fore-* 
tells to the ancient dames of Radnor, who are wea- 
ther-wise, that a shower of rain will speedily ensue, 
a circumstance that called forth the poetic powers 
of one of them, in the following popular and prophe- 
tic couplet — 

“ When Whimble wears his cloudy cap, 

“ Let Radnor’s boys take care of that !” 

Malkin seems to have entered the chasm of the 
waterfall from the New Radnor end ; as his account 
ofitisboth interesting and well written; we shall 
not deprive the reader of a line of it. 

“ There is within a mile of New Radnor a water- 
fall, much visited by travellers. A path along the 
side of a steep mountain, with a brook rolling below, 
leads to the entrance of the chasm. A hut or two 
is the only sign of society, and there is none of ve- 
getation. In wet weather, the cataract cannot be 
approached ; but at other times, it is practicable to 
walk up the course of the stream, between lofty and 
tremendous cliffs, composed of rock, the colour »f 


Llanbegley Wells, 

which is almost black. The whole scene is over- 
spread with loose fragments, which are broken off by 
storms, and roll down in every direction. Roots 
and fibres start occasionally from the crevices ; but 
they put forth no shoots to enliven the dark and 
dreary grandeur, or add the picturesque to the asto- 
nishing. The light from above is nearly shut out 
by the projecting crags, which seem ready to fall on 
the intruder below. The masses are very large, their 
forms iincouthly grand, and their elevations giddy. 
From the extre'mity of this chasm, but not from the 
highest part, a cataract rushes over the projecting 
edges of the rock, down a precipice of seventy feet 
in perpendicular height. Smaller cascades trickle 
down scantily on each side, and join the larger body 
below. An insulated mass of rock stands erect 
above the great water-fall, about twenty feet high. 
The attrition of the water, forcing its passage on 
each side, has so far worn its base, as to render it 
much slighter than the top. The grandeur is much 
heightened by this circumstance, and perhaps by 
the sensation of danger that accompanies it. Not- 
withstanding these strongly-marked and uncommon 
features, there are few scenes so much talked of, that 
so little realize expectation. This is not the fault of 
the spot itself, but of the country in which it is 
placed. Were the approach to it through a luxu- 
riant dell, or a woody and romantic dingle, nothing 
could exceed the surprise it would create, the min- 
gled emotions of awe and pleasure, to which it would 



give birth. We should examine it with a sort of 
fearful interest, and look with increased delight at 
our return, on the pleasurable contrast of nature in 
her smiling mood. But as it is, the access is so 
dull ami barren, that our thoughts are previously 
led into no train of high expectation, our fancies 
worked up into no fervour of enthusiasm. We are 
weary before we arrive, and though we are repaid 
by something stupendous, there is neither gradation 
nor variety ; nothing less grand in retrospect, no- 
thing more sublime in prospect, with which to com- 
pare it. Another drawback is, that the supply of 
water is apt either to be too scanty for effect, or too 
full tor a near and curious examination. The spring 
rises on the summit of a mountain, at no great dis- 
tance from the cascade, and finds its way to the 
Lug near New Radnor. At some seasons therefore 
it is nearly dry.” 

From here we shall return back a little, towards 
the south west, and after taking in Blaen-Edwy Wells, 
follow each object of interest in due course of ro- 




EhESE springs lie two miles to the south of 
Llandegley, and eight miles north-east of Builtb. 
They are two in number but of the same quality, 
although one is very foolishly called “the eye- 
water.” It has been asserted that this is a sulphu- 
reous-vitrolic water, but since ascertained to be 
merely sulphureous, yet very strongly impregnated. 
It has both the taste and smell of the Llandegley 
water, so much so, that it would be difficult to dis- 
cover one from the other, although each of the 
tenants claims the superiority in strength and effi- 
cacy of their own spa. The water here also is 
conveyed by spouts into a large stone trough, used 
for bathing ; over it is a straw thatched w'oodea 
hut, much dilapidated, which, with its venerable 
fringes of white moss, bespeaks its erection to have 
been of no recent date. It is on a poor farm be- 
longing to Thomas Franklin Lewis, Esq. M. P. 

• Blaen-Edwy Bignifies the extremity nf the Fdw. Tlie 
rirer rites in this parish. Edwy means sici^ft water. 



Forrester of Radnor, and seated on a bank beside, 
and washed by the Edwy, a brook, which by the 
accunudation of other waters, as it proceeds, be- 
comes a river that empties itself into the Wye, 
about live miles to the east of Builth. The trout of 
this little river are in very high estimation, beyond 
those of any of the neighbouring streams, for their 
brmness and superior flavor. 

Blaen-Edwy waters occupy the upper end of a 
narrow and shallow dingle, with a marshy meadow 
and a moorland common for immediate neighbours, 
and are even w’orse off than Llandrindod on the 
score of agreeable scenery. They are ill situate 
for becoming the resort of the fashionable, and 
Llandegley has much the advantage in every point. 
This water has been of more consideration than at 
present, the declension of public patronage is to be 
attributed to any thing but the demerit of the 
Spa. The poor people who fly the haunts of the 
wealthy, gladly avail themselves of this obscure 
but no less valuable water, and at an cxpence com- 
mensurate with their humble fortunes, find their 
remedies. 1 his, like the Llandegley water has fre- 
quently had the honor of exportation into Hereford 
and Worcester, and many, it is said, have come 
here, by high medical recommendation, and been 
cured of various cutaneous diseases, especially the 
scrophula. But the w-ant of comfortable lodgings 
operates at prescntas an insurmountable bar to 


Llandegley and Blaen-Edwy Wells, 

the visits of the public. The tenant of this farm 
informed me he could make up no more than five 
or six beds at the utmost, and those of an humble 

The common, in wet weather, is almost impassa- 
ble, and it is very difficult to attain the turnpike- 
road from hence, sometimes even on horseback. 
The Llaiidegley rocks, before named, extend to the 
immediate neighbourhood of Blaen-Edwy, and the 
two turnpike-roads are within half a mile of it, 
w'hile a respectable house bearing its Welsh name 
of Gwaun yr Argwydd, ike lord's meadow (lord of 
the manor) is about the same distance oflT, and 
Llynhilyn about one mile. The Rev, Mr. Beebee, 
Rector of Presteign, informed me of a recent cure 
by these waters that deserves record. Two of his 
children had been innoculated : from some imper- 
fection in the matter used to convey the infection, 
after an apparent recovery they again became the 
victims of a disorded skin, which encreased to a 
most frightful degree that naturally alarmed the 
parents. Every proposed remedy proved ineffectual 
till this sulphur water was tried, which, after a few 
immersions, removed every vestige of the disorder. 




LlYNHILYN, often erroneously called Llan 
hillin’s Pool,* is an alpine lake of great depth and 
circular shape, about a mile in circumference, and 
strangely situate on the most lofty eminence in the 
neighbourhood. Around it horse-racing very fre- 
quently takes place, for which its banks are ad- 
mirably formed, being so level as almost to appear 
the work of art. On a further study of its appear- 
ance, we may almost venture to assert, that it cer- 
tainly was so. Though the labour would be very great 
a lake may be formed by human exertion, on any 
mountain where there is a copious spring, and if 
aided by other springs can be carried to an im- 
mense extent, and be well stocked by its propri- 

There is no record of an abbey, or any kind 
of religious houses having stood contiguous, or we 
might naturally attribute its existence to the inge- 
nuity of some of the holy fraternity, as at Llyn- 
teivy, which with the neighbouring pools, are said 
to have been stocked with a foreign trout of supe- 

•* Llyu signifies lake' I am not aware of the derivation of 


Llandegley and Blaen-Edwy Wells, 

rior size and flavor, by the monks of Strata Florida. 
But it seems these ancient ecclesiastics (proverbially 
lovers of good cheer) have left no other memorial 
of their “ having been,” excepting their erection of 
Pont-y-Vynach, or Monk’s Bridge, in Cardigan- 
shire ; which the English legend-makers, with the;, 
laudable idea of embellishing their precious tours 
with a sprinkle of the marvellous, have re-christened, 
and called the Devil’s Bridge, with a very silly tale 
of home manufacture, for an explanatory accom- 

So large a pool in such a situation is really a 
curiosity. It abounds with carp and remarkable 
large eels, some of which have weighed from six to 
seven pounds. Its flood is discharged at one end 
in a stream large enough to turn a mill. The tenant 
of Blaen-Edwy farm used to keep a boat on it till 
lately, when it was worn out by hard service. In 
Cardiganshire andseveral counties of North Wales, 
it is true, there arc phenomena of the same kind as 
this, but of much greater magnitude and curiosity. 

The two high roads, one from Builth, and the 
other from Rhaiader towards New Radnor, form an 
angle along the two sides of Llynhilyn. The views 
from hence are bold aud rugged but not very beauti- 
ful, some, indeed, are really repulsive. A planta- 
tion of Scotch Fir would both interest and add beauty 



to the spot, which is very bleak and desolate ; en- 
livened, however,by a tarin-honse and itsaccompani- 
inents of out-honses and a scanty plantation, which 
stand on one side of the Pool, and bounds the 
cultivated lands from the VViJd Mountain. 

Returning to the road, on the way to New Radnor 
we pass through Llanvihangel-nantmelan, a miser- 
able village, with little to justify its poetic name, 
which signifies St. Michael’s Church of the Honey- 
brook. It has very few houses, a circumstance 
that might assist the facetious Mr. Deacon, author 
of the Inn-keepei’s Album in breaking a few jests 
at our expense, by altering and anglofying our or- 
thography, and other notable modes of being witty, 
as he trusts, in a similar case “ that the reader will 
pardon him for the orthography of the different 
Welsh places alluded to in his work, as he had been 
nearly put to death in a vain attempt to pronounce 
them after the most approved fashion !” He adds 
in the same passage, “ Wales is as famous for the 
length and toughness of its words, as for ita pedi- 
grees, and many of its villages have more consonants 
than houses. One, in particular, has a name long 
enough to rival the famous Cook’s bill at Cambridge, 
which was thirty- six feet long, by one and a half 
broad !” 


New Radnor, 

It is to this sort of unlimited exaggeration, and 
Jack Pudding kind of drollery, with occasional 
burlesque allusion to passages of scripture, which 
admirably suit the taste of a certain class of readers, 
that Mr. Deacon principally owes his success as an 
author. But of this merry gentleman, more anon. 
There is nothing further to attract attention on this 
road, till we enter New Radnor, which stands two 
miles from Llanvih angel. 


IMaESYVED NEWYDD, or New Radnor, is 
situate near the head of the Somergill, at the nar- 
row entrance of a mountain pass, between two high 
pointed hills, called Radnor Forest, but no longer 
meriting the name from its destitution of trees: Rad- 
nor Forest is continoed almost from Llandegley to 
this vicinity. These hills are covered with verdure 
to the very top and afltord excellent sheep-walks. 

* Mr. Malkin remarks, “ the Earldom of Radnor was not 
created till the time of Charles II. nor hare its possessors 
since that period, contributed much to enlarge the page of 
history.” Who can help glancing here, towards the source 
of those honors, which distinguished the minions of the 
“ merry monarch,” they might well say, “ blessed is the 
mail who hath a handsome wife, and no honor, for honors 
shall to him abound !” 



New Radnor was formerly the chief place in the 
county, and is at present the borough town, which 
in conjunction with Knighton, Rhaiader, Cevn Llys 
Cnwclas, sends one member to parliament. It con- 
sists of a few miserable houses, forming an irregular 
street, without a single object to attract the notice 
of a traveller, excepting an old building like a barn, 
for the county hall, where the borough election and 
county courts are held, with the court of pleas for 
all actions, without being limited to any particular 
sum. The church, a respectable edifice, extending 
114 feet in length by 33 in width, with a large 
square tower at the west end, stands on eminence 
above the town. In ancient times this place was 
evidently of greater importance than it is at present, 
being originally enclosed by a square wall, with four 
gates, which appear to be Roman, from the simi- 
larity they bear to the stations at Caerleon and Ca- 
erwent. Here was also h castle, built on an eminence 
above the town, probably a fortress of considerable 
strength, having an entire command of the town, be- 
sides defending a narrow pass leading to it between 
two hills. Owen Glyndwr, according to Caradoc, 
defaced the town in the reign of Henry IV. and 
burnt the castle; he afterwards ordered sixty of the 
garrison to be immediately beheaded in the yard. 
Camden mentions, that the castle was in ruins in 
his time; and much neglected, except apiece of the 
gate, which was then repaired. Some of the walls 
still remain resting upon rows of small Gothic 


New Radnor and Old Radnor, 

Warlike implements are found in great numbers by 
the natives, who busv themselves in digging about 
the castle bill in the hope of finding treasure. New 
Radnor still retains its corporate privileges. The 
corporation consists of a bailiff, twenty-five capital 
burgesses, two aldermen, a recorder, coroner, town 
clerk, sergeants at mace, &c. The bailiff and aider- 
men are elected annually out of the capital bur- 
gesses, and while in office, are justices of the peace, 
within the jurisdiction of the borough : the bailiff 
retains his commission as Justice, for one year after 
he goes out of office. The qualification for a bur- 
gess of New Radnor, is a honajide residence within 
the jurisdiction at the time of his election. The 
whole number of burgesses, with those of the con- 
tributary boroughs is from 12 to 1400. 

At Harpton, between Old and New Radnor, near 
the seat of Thomas Franklin Lewis, Esq. M. P. is a 
very large oak, said to girt twenty-seven oi twenty- 
eight feet. 


Old RADNOR, or Pen-y-Graig, Head of the 
Rock, as it is called in Welsh, was once a place 
of note, with a strong castle, though now but an 
humble village. Its church is large and venerable, 
tlie interior of which is adorned with many interest- 
ing monuments, and a screen of rich and curious, 



workmanship. Near it runs a Roman road, and at 
a ihort distance are the Stanner Rocks, on the sum- 
mit of which is found a profusion of beautiful wild 
flowers peculiar to the spot. By the common peo- 
ple it is called the Devil’s Garden. A correspon- 
dent in the Cambro Briton very justly says, “ the 
Stanner Rocks, between Radnor and Kington, are 
grand and romantic; but from the summit of the 
forest, he that has an eye to see nature, and a heart 
to feel the pleasures of the sublime, may feast the 
senses in the most delightful manner with the dis- 
tant view of mountain over mountain. In ascending 
from Llanvihangel, you seem to leave behind a gro- 
tesque set of inferior hills, while you mount the 
summit, and on your right you have hollows, vales 
and eminences, surmounted at a distance, with a 
still loftier region of hills and mountainous tracts, 
until you gain the height, and Cader Arthur, or 
the Brecknock Beacons, then are beheld in the 
clouds. Looking westward and northward, you see 
some of the proudest fortresses aud garrisons of na- 
ture’s kingdom, and in a difterent direction the 
Malvern Hills, which divide the counties of Here- 
ford and Worcester.” Charles I. after the battle ol 
Naseby, and during his flight from the parliament 
forces, slept on the Gth of August, 1645, at the 
Priory House in Brecon, and dined with Sir Henry 
Williams of Gwernyved ; thence he continued his 
rout to Old Radnor, where he supped on the 7th, 



and was, perhaps the only royal guest who sought 
accommodation in this ancient city. Calcareous 
stone is very plentiful in this neighbourhood, and 
kilns are continually burning to supply the county 
with this valuable species of manure. 


On leaving Old Radnor and returning in a south- 
erly direction, we visit the village of Glascwn, which 
might be passed unnoticed but for a silly legendary 
story told of its church by Giraldus Cambrensis. 

In this church" he says, “ is a portable bell, en- 
dowed with great virtues, said to have belonged to 
St. David. A certain woman conveyed this bell to 
her husband, who was contined in a neighbouring 
castle, for the purpose of effecting his deliverance. 
The keeper, however, refusing to let him free, 
though he had seized and detained the bell, a fire 
broke out in the town the same night, which entirely 
consumed it, except the wall on which the bell hung^ 
a signal instance of divine vengeance !” 

Proceeding in this direction, we find no place 
worthy of mention till we arrive at the little town- 
ship of Pain’s Castle, which has no longer either 
market or castle, nor any thing else worthy of note. 




At the distance of about six miles from New 
Radnor, we arrive at Presteign, or Llan-Andrew, 
once a small village, but by the countenance of 
Martin, Bishop of St. David, about the middle of 
the 13th century, it rose to such a degree of .ele- 
gance as to eclipse the borough town of Radnor. 

It was in Leland’s time noted for a good market of 
corn, where many from the Cantrev of Maelienydd 
resorted to buy and sell. The town is pleasantly 
situated near the river Lug, and may be properly 
called the modern capital of Radnorshire; and here 
the county gaol is situated. This place likewise ex- 
hibits strong marks of having been formerly of much 
greater extent; indeed the few streets it now con- 
tains are neat and well formed. From here the 
little vale inclosing Presteign, and watered by the 
river Lug, may be seen to great advange; as may 
also Stapleton Castle, an ancient Gothic mansion, 
rising from a rock in its centre. In the town are 
many very genteel residences, and there is a general 
appearance of cleanliness and comfort here, that be- 
speaks the superintendence of the eye of taste, and 
the presence of competence, if not of wealth. 

The chief object is the parish church, which con- 



tains a few tablets for the families of Owen, Price, 
and Davies, with an altar-piece of tapestry, repre- 
senting Christ’s entry into Jerusalem. — The walls 
are decorated with figures of Moses, Aaron, Time, 
and Death, all of which are well executed. On 
the west of the town is a beautiful little eminence, 
or site of au ancient castle, now called Warden 
Walk, a donation of Lord Oxford to the inhabitants. 
From hence an agreeable walk leads to the summit 
of a bowling-green, on which is erected a neat pa- 
vilion. A small bridge over the Lug, close to the 
town, connects the counties of Hereford and 

Although the largest and best built town in the 
county, and a borough by prescription, Presteign 
has not a voice in the election of a representative. 
It stands on the river Lug, 151 miles from London, 
has a market on Saturday, and a population of 
1940 persons. The church, the town-hall, where 
the assizes are held, and the county gaol, with 
many handsome private houses, give Presteign an 
aspect of considerable respectability and import- 
ance. In the church-yard, and on a hill called the 
Warden, the site of the castle, there are pleasant 
walks, which are often paraded by no inconsider- 
able portion of the gay and fashionable. Here is a 
well-endowed free chool, founded by John Bad- 
dowes, au eminent clothier in the reign of Queen 



Elizabeth. The principal seats in the vicinity, are 
Roultibrouk, the mansion of Sir Harford Jones ; 
Evenjob, the seat of the honorable Mr. Harley, and 
Grove Hall. 


Previous to Presteign becoming the capital of the 
county. Old Radnor had been burnt nearly a cen- 
tury; ou which New Radnor sprung up, and was 
also burnt, about a century after, during the war 
between Glendower and Henry IV. and has neyer 
been restored. 


IV NlGirrON, in Welsh called Trev y-Clawdd, 
r>i/ke-tv 7 vn, from that stujiendous work Offa’sdyke, 
which lies parallel with the road between it and 
Presteign, is ten miles from New Radnor, and I. ">6' 
from Lriulon. Its market is on Thursday, and the 
population is estimated at 1940 persons. It is go- 
verned by a bailiff appointed at the cotirt-leet, and 
the peitv scs.sions for the hundred of Knighton are 
held here. It is situate at the head of a deep vale, 
and except Presteign is the most handsome town in the 
count V. 1 1 descends in several steep streets, which pre- 
sent vcjy pifturcs(jiie ohjec ts totheadjacenl country. 



This romantic vale is surrounded by high hills, and 
well clothed with wood and verdure, likewise con- 
siderably enriched by the winding course of the 
river Teme. Knighton and its various vicinities, in 
themselves beautiful, claim our most marked atten- 
tion from their very interesting connections with 
the page as theatres of great actions in the olden 
times, and I trust it will not be considered too 
long a deviation from the main design of this work 
to narrate the principal events, &c. the battles of 
Caractacus, of Offa King of tlie Mercians, and 
Oweu Glendower, in the very distant eras of 53, 
7G0, an^ 1402. 


V_/AER CAR'\D0C, or fortification of Cara,cta- 
cus, is a high hill, a little to the north of Knighton. 
That celebrated Silurian hero fortified it in A. D, 
53, with a rampart of stones against the Romans, 
under Ostorius, whose camp is also visible opposite, 
till the rude mass was broken through, which com- 
])elled the Britons aj leiigth to retreat. The whole 
account of Caradoc, or as the Romans latinised 
bis name, Caractacus, is so very interesting, as 
detailed in Mr. Hughes’s Hora: Uiitannicae, 



claiming both insertion and our best thanks to that 
perspicuous writer. The reader will observe this 
account describes a second invasion of Britain by 
the Romans, to subdue the refractory chiefs of the 
Britons, who attempted to doff their yoke. 

“ The following circumstance prompted Claudius 
to attempt the conquest of Britain : Caractacus 
and Togoduranus now ruled the Catti, or Cassii, 
and some other tribes, as successors of their de- 
ceased father Cuuobelin: they vanquished and ex- 
pelled a chieflian of the Dobuni, of the name of 
Beric, who, with the most vindictive designs, went 
to Rome ; and, with a treacliery of which there are 
few forninr instances among the Britons, urged and 
stimulated the indolent Emperor Claudius to under- 
take an expedition against Britain, his native coun- 
try. The courtiers and generals of Claudius flattered 
him with the prospect of the honors he should ac- 
quire from the final conquest of the finest island of 
the globe, now divided against itself, by the civil 
dissensions which subsisted among the native chief- 
tains, and by the ambition of the more powerful of 
them, who subdued and enslaved the petty sove- 
reigns and states that lay contiguous to their ter- 

Aulus Plautius, a person of senatorial dignity, 
and an experienced general, was entrusted with the 
army that was to effect the conquest of Britain. 


Caer Caradoc, 

Being furnished with every thing suitable for so im- 
portant an undertaking, he set out, and marched 
with his troops through Gaul to the sea-coast, from 
whence they were to embark for the island ; but a 
sudden mutiny rose among the soldiers, who having 
been informed of the rough treatment which Julius 
Ciesar had met with, protested against the extreme 
dangers they should have to encounter, when trans- 
ported as it were, into a new world, to fightagainst 
fierce barbarians. 

“ The refusal of the soldiers, which seemed at 
first so unpromising,” observes Dr, Smollett, “con- 
tributed in the event to the success of the enter- 
prize ; for the Britons, being informed of the 
mutiny, interihitted in the measures they were tak- 
ing to defend the coast, so that when the Roman 
army submitted cf their own accord to the orders 
of their general, they made a descent on the island 
without opposition.” The contrary winds they met 
with rather terrified them on their passage, until a 
meteor appeared in the East, from which they 
prognosticated the happy event of their expedition. 
This descent of the Romans on the British shores, 
was in the year of Christ 45, being the third of the 
reign of Claudius. 

Tlie sons of Cunobelin had sent an embassy to 
Rome, to justify their conduct with respect to the 
maimer in which they had acted towards Bsricus, 




requesting that that fugitive might he sent back ; 
but the deputies were treated with disdain, and the 
princes were reproached for neglecting to pay the 
tribute which Caesar had imposed upon them. Ca- 
ractacus, and his brother, were incensed to the 
highest degree, by the treatment which the Roman 
court offered to their ambassadors ; and as, in con- 
sequence of such an open rupture, they naturally 
expected an invasion, they made suitable prepara- 
tions to meet their danger. But the obstinate mu- 
tiny among the Roman troops made them relax 
in their efforts, concluding, very fallaciously, that 
the present expedition was to terminate in a manner 
similar to that under Caligula. In consequence of 
this false confidence, the chiefs withdrew their 
troops into the interior, leaving the coast open and 
defenceless. Some may infer, that this measure 
arose from the policy of the Britons ; intending by 
their retreat into their fastnesses in the woods, to 
weary out an enemy too powerful to be met in the 
field, but whom they might hope to surround, and 
cut off, by various stratagems. 

Plautius having landed in Kent, advanced into 
the country as far as the Thames, which he is sup- 
posed to have crossed at Wallingford.* His first 
engagement with the two brothers was in Oxford- 

• Smollett's History, Vol. I. p. 46. 


Caer Caradoc, 

shire, when he defeated them in two pitched battles. 
The submission of the Dobuni was the consequence 
of these actions. The Britons were now retired to 
a situation on the other side of the Thames, where 
they deemed themselves secure, the river being 
there, as they supposed, impassible. Their con- 
jecture was false, for a party of Germans, accord- 
ing to their usual custom , swam over first, in their 
armour; these were followed by a detachment of 
ilomans, under the., command of Flavius Vespa- 
sian, afterwards emperor, and his brother Sabinus, 
who, falling upon the Britons with great fury, 
obliged them to give way, after a vast number of 
their horse and charioteers were cut off. Nolwith- 
slanding this discomfiture, the Britons were daring 
■enough, on the following day, to charge the Romans 
with such intrepidity, as almost to have routed them ; 
until the fortune of the day was turned, by Cains 
Sidius (ieta, an inferior officer, who, for his valour, 
and good conduct, obtained great honor.* Carac- 
tacus and the Britons, after this unsuccessful effort, 
drew back towards the mouth of the Thames ; and, 
being well acquainted with the country, they were 
so expert, as to cross over the river, in places where 
the Romans would be exposed to imminent danger, 
from the bogs and marshes, caused by the stagnated 
waters, where the river had overflowu its banks. 

♦ Dion Cassius, lib. 6. 



The Germans swam over ; and Plautius, willi the 
fegionary troops, passed over a bridge higher up : 
a tierce battle ensued, in which Togodumnus was 
slain, and the Britons were routed with great 

Plautius having gained four successive victories in 
Britain, sends to the emperor an account of bis pro- 
ceedings. Claudius waiting in Gaul, to know the 
result, was parading the country with his armed ele- 
phants, in all the stale of an eastern monarch ; and 
the news of his general’s success was no small matter 
of exultation. “ So great a matter was it deemed,” 
says Milton, “ even for Roman troops and Roman 
generals to meet the native and naked valour of the 
Britons, when defending their own country.” 

Claudius hastened to embark for Marseilles, from 
whence he marched to Gessoriacum, or Boulogne, 
where he took shipping for the British coast, with a 
considerable reinforcement, and landed safely at the 
Portus Rutupinus, now called Sandwich. 

As soon as the soldiers were disembarked, Clau- 
dius proceeded to the banks of the Thames, on 

* “ This happene<l, it is supposed,” says Smollett, “ near 
the place now called the Isle of Dog’S, almost opposite to 
Greenwich, because the river is there fordable, and at no 
•thcr place between that and the sea. 


Caer Caradoc, 

which Plautius was encamped. The two armies 
being joined, and tiie soldiers already victorious, al- 
though not without sustaining many losses, were 
animated with new courage now they had the em- 
peror at their head ; therefore, although the Britons 
'bravely disputed the passage, the Romans crossed 
the Thames into the territory of the Trinobantes, 
and took Camolodunum, the capital. 

These victories had such an effect upon some of 
the British tribes, that they resorted to the emperor’s 
camp, to make their submission, these were the 
Belgae, as Smollett supposes, who were not so long 
settled in the country ; but none of the ancient na- 
tives would give up their independence excepting 
the Iceni, who courted the alliance of the Ro- 
mans. Caractacus still kept the field, undaunted 
after the losses he had sustained ; and continued for 
many years to cherish the love of liberty and inde- 
pendence among his countrymen. 

Claudius did not think proper to expose his per- 
son for any length of time in Britain. Having re- 
ceived the submission of those tribes who surrendered 
themselves, ho. returned to Rome, from whence he had 
been absent six months, and in Britain only sixteen 
days. Claudius now assumed the title of Britan* 
nicus, from his conquests obtained in Britain, the 
honor of which he took ic -ximseif, and left Plautius 
to conclude the campaign. 



While Plaulius was combating those Britons who 
were subject to the sons of Cunobelin, he found a 
fierce enemy in the valiant Caractaciis, who conti- 
nued to oppose him. Vespasian was engaged in a 
different part of the island, and his success was equal 
to his great talents. He subdued and took posses- 
sion of the whole extent of country on the sea- coast, 
from Kent to the Land’s-eud, including Hampshire, 
Wiltshire, Somersetshire, and Cornwall, the most 
part of which, in a former age, the Relgae had re. 
duced into their power. The Durotriges, and some 
others, had maintained their original independence; 
but even these were overpowered by the arms of 
Rome, and the military skill of the great Vespasian, 
who, on his return to the capital, was honoured 
with a triumph, and had the consulship conferred 
on him. 

Auliis Plautius, although a consummate general, 
found himself exposed to a variety of dangers, while 
he had to combat with the undaunted courage, and 
invincible fortitude of Caractacus. This celebrated 
chieflian was cool, penetrating, and persevering ; 
from his experience and judgment he was fertile in 
expedients; and his patience in adversity was such, 
that his repeated defeats only served to stimulate 
him to new attempts. But, with alt these great qua- 
lities, he was uirable to withstand the arms, and mi- 
litary discipline, of the Romans. He, therefore, 
employed himself in skirmishes, and harrassed the 


Caer Caradoc, 

Roman army with great success : and his parties, 
when overmatched, retreated (o mountains, fens, 
and fastnesses, unknown and inaccessible to the 
enemy. But Plautius proceeded in his conquests ; 
and subjugated the Dobuni, Ancalites, and Trino- 
bantes, or the people of Gloucestershire, Oxford- 
shire, Middlesex, and Essex. On his return to 
Rome, he enjoyed the honours of an Ovation, or 
lesser triumph. 

After an interval of two years, Aulus Platius was 
succeeded by Publius Ostorius Scapula. 

P. Ostorius found matters in a very critical state, 
owing to the fierce and untractable spirit of the na- 
tives, who were incessantly making inroads on those 
parts of the country which the Romans had brought 
under their dominion. The Britons were aware of 
the disadvantageous situation of the new general, 
who had to command troops with whom he was not 
yet acquainted, and was a stranger to the country ; 
besides that, winter was approaching. They be- 
came over confident, that under such disadvantijges, 
the general would not think of soon attacking them ; 
but his actions quickly convinced them of their 
mistake. He first subdued the Iceni, or Norfolk- 
men, who were for asserting their independence. 
He then placed garrisons on the river Anton, or the 
Nen, in Northamptonshire ; and fortified the pas- 
sages of the Severn. He then proceeded to lay 



waste the territory of the Cangi, or the Cheshire 
men ; from thence he passed over into the country 
of the Ordovices, or men of North- Wales, who were 
not prepared to oppose him. He was subduing all 
before him, to the Irish Sea, when he was informed 
of the turbulent spirit of the Brigantes, who were 
for throwing off the Roman yoke. That people, 
whose territory at that time seems to have included 
a part of Lancashire, and perhaps of Cheshire, were 
quickly reduced, and brought to submit to the 
power of Rome. But the Silures were become so 
uutractable, that it required no small force to sub- 
due them. That warlike people inhabited a country 
iutersected by rivers, and defended by woods and 
mountains, which, with their natural bravery, ren- 
dered them very troublesome to the Romans. Their 
territory composed the counties of Hereford, and 
Monmouth; and, according to most of our anti- 
quaries, the counties of Glamorgan and Brecon. 

Caractacus had now placed himself at the head 
of the Silures and some other tribes, who were the 
the most inveterate against the Romans, and the 
most jealous of their independence. This great 
prince, from his experience in war, and his persev- 
ering opposition to the progress of the Roman arms, 
was the most competent to inspire the Britons with 
ardour and courage in the grand struggle they were 
now making for the independence of their country. 
Caractacus having long withstood the force of that 


Caer Caradoc, 

people, and being sensible that the whole of their 
power was to be directed against him, used every 
precaution to render himself formidable. With that 
view he passed the .Severn, moving the seat of war 
to the borders of the Ordovices, where he chose a 
situation, such as he deemed highly advantageous 
to himself, and embarrassing to the enemy. He 
pitched his camp in a place on the edge of Shrop- 
shire, contiguous to Radnorshire, and since called 
Caer Caradoc,* or the camp of Caractacus. This 
British camp was situated on the top of a high hill, 
the sides of which were abrupt and didicult of ac- 
cess, fortified by a rampart of high stones. The 
foot of the hill was defended by a deep river. 1 he 
hero himself went round the camp, incessantly ani- 
mating his officers and leaders, exclaiming that now 
was the time, and that was the place, where they 
must figlit for their liberty, or be for ever slaves. 

He reminded them of the bravery of their ances- 
tors, who had repulsed Julius Ccesar, and by whose 
valour they had lived free from tribute and servitude, 
and preserved their wives and children from disho- 

« The spot is slill to tie disting-uished on the top of a steep 
hill, Mheie the truces of a camp may be seen snriounded hj 
•toue ramparts, though now covered with earth. The river 
Colun, or Clun, runs by, and falls into the Temc, which di- 
vides Shropshire from Herefordshire. 




nour. The Britons, by their shouts and acclatna. 
tions, testihed by their enthusiastic ardour, declar- 
ing with dreadful imprecations that the greatest 
extremities would never oblige them to yield to their 
enemies, ^ Their undaunted resolution amazed the 
Roman general ; but his soldiers were clamorous to 
be led on to the attack, exclaiming that their valour 
was sufficient to surmount all obstacles ; and the 
tribunes, and other officers, used every method to 
enkindle the ardour of the troops. Ostorius, having 
minutely surveyed the situation of the Britons, and 
perceiving where he might nrost safely make his as“ 
sault, crossed the river with the troops, and passed 
over without difficulty. Having approached the 
rampart on the side least difficult of access, the con- 
flict became exceeding sharp and bloody, and the 
slaughter of the Romans'was very great. Undismay- 
ed, however, by such a terrible reception, they 
resolved to storm the British camp ; and, there- 
fore, according to their usual practice on such 
occasions, they placed their targets over their 
heads, and closing their ranks, in that impenetrable 
form they made a breach in the camp, and forced 
their way through ; when, coming to close quarters 
with the Britons, they at length drove them from 
their entrenchurent further up the mountain. From 
thence, as they wore neither mail nor helmet, they 
were dislodged, by the well-armed Homan legion- 
aries who attacked them with their heavy swords 
and javelins, or by the pikes and spears of the aux- 




iliaries. Their stern but inefficacious valour had no 
resource against the discipline and arms of the 
Romans. The wife and daughter of the British 
chiet^ together with his brothers, were taken pris'-n- 
ers, while he, having made his escape, betook him- 
self to Carlismandua, queen of the Brigantes ; and 
depending on her generosity, he was infamously be- 
trayed by her into the hands of his enemies. Such 
was the fate of that great British champion, who, 
according to Tacitus, had now' for nine years so 
nobly withstood the Roman arms ; although Milton 
computes the time to have been two years less. The 
liistorian, witli <:rue generosity, expatiates with de- 
light upon the fame of our hero. He informs us 
that his name was become illustrious through all 
Italy, as well as the provinces. 

When he was brought to Rome by order of the 
emperor Claudius, all ranks of people were anxious 
to see this wonderful man, who had for so long a 
space of time spurned the alliance, and opposed the 
arms of the Romans. The senate spoke in high 
terms of the atchievmcnt perfornied by the capture 
of Caractaciis,. and compared it with the most mag- 
nificent of those conquests which had added to their 
national glory ; as when the Numidian Syphax had 
been rerluccd by Publius Scipio, and Perseus by 
Paulus Emilius, or wlien at any period the most po- 
tent nionarchs had submitted to the Romans. The 
manner in which the British prince was presented- 



before Clamli'is, and his behaviour on the occasion, 
are described by Tacifns. That day was considered 
as the time of some "rand spectacle, the emperor’s 
"uards were placed in order, and himself seated on 
his tribunal, while the captives were ordered to be 
brought into h's presence. First appeared the vas- 
sals of the Rritish prince, with the trappings and 
spoils of the war; these were followed by his wife, 
brothers, ami daughters, imploring mercy in the 
most abject terms : then, last of all, came Caracta- 
cus himself, with a dignified aspect, betraying nei- 
neither fear nor perplexity in his countenance. 
Approaching the tribunal, he is said to have ad- 
dressed the e.uperor as follo^vs ; — 

“ Had my moderation been equal to my birth 
and fortune, I liad arrived in this city, not a cap- 
tive but an ally; nor would y u have disdained tlie 
alliance of a prince like me, descended from illus- 
trious progenitors, and vested with the supreme 
authority over many w'arlike nations; My present 
fate redounds as much to your honour, as to my own 
disgrace. I was in possession of vassals, horses, 
arms, and wealth ; —what wonder then that I was 
unwiiling to be deprived of them ? for. though you 
are ambitious of universal empire, it does not fol- 
low that all men ought tamely to submit to your 
dominion. Had 1 surrendered myself in the begin- 
ning of the conquest, neither my' misfortune, nor 
vou'r glory, would have attracted the attentiou of 



the world ; and my fate would have been buried in 
oblivion. But if you now spare my life, I shall be 
an eternal monument of your clemency.” 

t ■ t , • 

The emperor was so struck with the depot tment 
of the prince, the capital of whose patrimonial ter- 
ritory he had himself entered while in Britain, and 
so affected with the noble simplicity and undaunted 
spirit of his address, that he ordered both him and 
his relations to be freed and pardoned. 

The next grand object here is Offa’s Dyke, a vasj 
ditch and rampart constructed by Offa, king" of 
Mercia, to restrain the Britons from recovering their 
lost possessions. This stupendous work was raised 
jn the year 760. It extends from the month of the 
Dee to that of the Wye, an extent of eighty miles of 
which Joliauties Sarisburcensis, in his Polycraticon, 
says, “ Harold made a law, that if any Welshman 
passed this boundary, the king’s officer should cut 
off his right hand.” At certain distances there are 
still marks or sites of forts, forming a boundary 
between the Welsh and English. Camden and other 
authors, have confounded this celebrated boundary 
with Wall’s Dyke, which runs parallel to U in 
North Wales. The utility of the latter is very un- 
certain, unless it was made by the Danes, in time of 
peace, for purposes of traffic ; hence, the space be 
tween the dykes' might have been considered neu" 
tral ground. The following account of Offa, I 



transcribe from Tlieophilus Jones’s History of Bre- 

“ The ambitious designs of Mercia, which indeed 
apparently slumbered hut never slept, were now re- 
newed with increased violence under OtFa; who 
entered heartily into the depredating schemes of his 
predecessor Etbelhald. Scarcely a -day passed 
without some attempts to h'rass the unfortunate 
Fci'licians,* I he Welsh finding that forbearance 
on their part served only to increase the confidence 
and invite the attacks of the enemy, resolved at 
length upon a blooily retaliation. Hitherto their 
system hatl been merely defensive, but now rising 
en masse, they suddenly entered Mercia, and having 
laid waste all before their, obliged the enemy, after 
a dreadful carnage, to retreat beyond the Severn, 
and returned home laden with plunder and spoils. 

“ Fierce Offa and the Saxons fled before them.” 

Encouraged hv this success, and animated with 
the hopes of further booty, they repeated their in- 
cursions and compelled their cruel and inveterate 
enemy to tremble in his turn.. Offa, being thus 
not only hatHed in his designs against Fferregs, but 
alarmed for the safety of his kingdom, called in the 
assistance of other Saxon princes, and with a 

niTcfordsliirf* and Rudiio: mca. 



strongly confederated army entered Wales. The 
Britons being far outnumbered by the invader, re- 
tired to the mountains upon their approach, driv- 
ing before them their cattle and carrying with them 
their effects ; so that the Saxons were soon obliged 
to retreat into England, probably for want of pro- 
visions, though ihe cause is not expressly assigned 
by historians. 

In order to curb (he restless spirit of the Britons, 
(as he was plijased to term it) Offa during this 
expedition placed a strong colony of Saxons in 
Fferregs, who in thcii own defence were com- 
pelled to resist and prevent the incursions of the 
inhabitants of tlie principality into (he English 
borders, and the better to ascertain the boundary 
of the two countrie?, he formed the well known 
dyke which bears his name, and which, even as 
late as the reign of Edward the confessor, was re- 
garded as the discrimiinting line Iretween England 
and Wales ; P>r by a lavs’ of Earl Harold it was or- 
dained, that if any Welshman coming into England 
without licence, should be taken on that side of 
Otfa’s dyke, his right hand should be cut off by 
(he kingis oflicer. It extended from Flintsliire in 
North VVales, to the mouth of the river Wye near 
Chepstow, or as some say, Tydenham passage in 
Gloucestershire. The tradition of the inhabitants 
of Ystradyw and the adjacent part of Monmouth- 
shire, carries it over one side of the Snjar I»af; 



if so, Penclawdd or the head of the ditch, in Mon* 
mouthsbire was upon Offa’s Dyke; but Mr. Coxe 
thinks it to have been the scite of an old Roman 
road. The boundary just mentioned most pro- 
bably took a more eastern direction, through He- 
refordshire and Monmouthshire. Pennant observes, 
that in all parts, the ditch is on the Welsh side, 
and that there are a great number of artificial 
mounds, the scites of small forts, in many places 
along its course: these were garrisoned and in- 
tended for the same purpose as the towers in the 
famous Chinese wall ; to watch the motions of the ' 
neighbours and to repel hostile incursions. The 
remains of this useless work of labour and expence 
are very visible in several places in North Wales^ 
and on a hill three miles west of Knighton in Rad- 
norshire ; through which town, called Tref y 
clawdd commonly Treclodd, or the town of the 
ditch, it evidently passed ; but from thence south- 
ward it can only be traced by conjecture. This 
incroachment upon their limits considerably dis- 
tressed the Welsh upon the borders, and compelled 
the princes of Powis* to remove the seat of go- 
vernment to Marthrafael. Hereford (then called 
Fferregs, and the town.f Caerffawydd, or Beech- 
chester) was no longer subject to the reguli of 
Fferregs, and Hugh Thomas J says, that “from 

• Wynne, Warrington, &c. f Llwyd’* Breviary 

•f Britain, p. 43. MS. Rawl. 1220. Rodl. Lib. 7, 



henceforwards their capitol was transferred to 
Brecknock,” meaning, I presume, some place in 
the country of Brecknock ; as it does not appear 
that the town was built until more than three cen- 
turies after this time. 

Taugwydd ap Tegyd succeeded only to the 
possession of that part of Fferregs which is now 
called Radnorshire, to a small part of Montgome- 
ryshire, and to that portion of Brecknockshire 
which was under his father’s government. The 
names of the cantrefydd or hundreds, of which this 
territory was composed, in the map now remain- 
ing of it, are so disfigured by mistakes in spelling, 
as to become unintelligible even to a Welsh reader, 
and would appear particularly uncouth to an 
English eye. The Britons thus circumscrihed by 
boundaries, erected by the power and protected by 
the forces of their adversary, and driven to their 
mountains, where they were compelled to conceal 
themsebes, smothered for some time their vexa- 
tion and apparently forgot their inju ies. Ofta 
vainly flattered himself that every thing was secure ; 
but the feelings of a brave jreople determined to 
live free or die courageously, are not easily sup- 
pressed ; they only wore the mask of indifference, 
while in reality they plotted the destruction of the 
obnoxious boundary and the avengcnieuf of their, 
nnileserved oppressions: for when Offa was lulled 
into a fancied safety and negligent inactivity, un- 



suspicious of impending danger, and perhaps des- 
pising the efforts of a vanquished and (as he sup- 
posed) desponding foe ; they suddenly arose, and 
having levelled the rampart and filled the ditch, 
attacked the unprepared Heptarch in his very in- 
trenchments, whence he escaped not without some 
difficulty. Offa was at this time encamped at a 
place in Herefordshire, now called Sutton Walls, 
or Sutton Wallia, about three miles north of He- 
reford ; it was then the rojal residence of the 
Saxon, and was situate * on the top of a hill, the 
summit of whitli i« level, and estimated to con- 
tain aliout thirtv acres of land, ienced round with 
a continued ram;' r.f earth, except on the noith 
and suilh sii es. w' -.1 re seem to have been 
roads into it. I '-e i ' : e r f tM.s area is a hol- 
low or low lilacc, the ■ . , e in (he neigh- 

bourhood V 'W cad e c l a" a ? mi times Offa’s 
cellar; a few years ano, in <■ g i ere, a silver 
ring was found ct on ar.i f . in. Here the dark 
and villainous mu der of rd clhevl king of the 
East Angles was contrived and executed by Offa 
and his infamous queen, Quendreda or Quendrida: 

“ Sutton acres drench’d with royal blood 
Of Ethelbert, when toth’ unhallowed feast 
Of Mercian Offa he invited came. 

To treat of tpousals ; long connubial joys 

• Price’s Hist. Heref. p. 15. 



. He promised to himself, allured by fair 

Elfrida’s beauty, but deluded died 
III height of hopes ; Ob hardest fate to fall 
By shew of friendship and pretended love.” 

OfFa, indeed, was a strange mixture of great 
talents and valour with most infamous vices and 
unrelenting ferocity. William of JMalmsbury (my 
countrymen will pardon me for quoting such an 
author) thus describes him: “king Ofta was a 
man of mighty courage and magnanimity, who re- 
solutely undertook whatever he once conceived ia 
his mind ; he reigned thirty-nine years. When I 
consider his exploits, which were varions in their 
nature and of different kinds, I am in doubt whe- 
ther I should reckon him among the good or evil 
kings, as there was such an interchangeable vicis- 
situde in him of virtues and vices : he was like 
Proteus, his form and features ever changing.” 
Cressy calls him, a noble and illustrious king, ani 
because he made a pilgrimage to Rome, and founded 
the monastery at St. Alban’s, he conceals most, 
and forgives him the remainder of his crimes. 

Mortified beyond measure at his late discumfi- 
ture at Sutton, as well as by previous disappoint- 
ments, the bloody Mercian despot wreaked his 
vengeance upon some unfortunate hostages whom 
the chance of war had thrown into his power; 
these he sacrificed to his fury without mercy, and 



the conflict between him and the Britons was ao'ain 
renewed with increasin<>- rancour; but though 
many engagements ensued between the contendins 
jiarlies, no material advantage was gained on either 
side till the fatal * * balle of Morfa Hhuddlan or 
Rhuddlan marsh, in the vale of Clwydd in Flint- 
shire, where the confederated Welsh were totally 
defeated and their leader slain. Bishop Gibson, f 
upon the authority of a iMS. in the Heilgwrt col- 
lection, asserts, that Meredydd king of Dyfed, 
and Ofl'a himself, fell in this engagement; but 
other authors speak dift'erenlly. Stowe t says, he 
dieil, altera reign of thirty-nine years at Olfley, 
and was buried in a chapel on the banks of the 
river Ouse. Camden § likewise quotes Floriiegus, 
who asserts that Ofl'a made choice of Bedford for 
the place of his interment; but that the river Ouse 
being once more rapid, and rising higher than or- 
dinary, swept away his monument. This is con- 
firmed by Matthew Paris, who, speaking of the 
battle of Rhuddlan, II stamps the character of this 
prince with eternal infamy ; for he informs us, that 
in cold blood, he gave orders that every man and 
child who had been taken prisoners, should be in- 
discriminately massacred and scarcely did even the 

* A. D. 796. f Add. to Camden’s Flintsliire. 

* CLronicIe. quarto, p. $9. § Camden’s Bedfordshire. 

II Vit. Off. p. 987. 



weaker sex escape his fury.* The memory of this . 
tragic event has been transmitted to posterity by 
an antient Welsh tune called Morfa Rhuddlan. 
There is something so peculiarly plaintive and ele- 
giac in the notes of this composition, that I can- 
not resist the temptation of inserting it, and to 
prove how well the sound conveys the language 
and sentiments of the bard upon this disastrous 
event, I need only mention, that when it was first 
played upon the harp to the late colonel Chabberf, 

(a Swiss gentleman, who came to reside in Brecon- 
shire) it brought fears into his eyes while he ob- 
served that he was sure it commemorated the 
defeat of a great army.” 

The music of this plaintive Welsh melody, is 
also published in Jones’s History of Breconshire. 

“ The original words,” he says, “ are lost, those 
now adapted to the tune are versified from a frag- 
ment published in the ‘ Letters from Snowden.’ It 
was set by the late Parry, a celebrated blind Welsh 

• Offchurch in Warwickihire, OfBngton in Sussex, and 
0£Bey in Staffordshire, preserve the memory of this royal 




Fair on old Havren’s banks 
The modest violet blooms, 

Aud wide the scented air 
Its breath perfumes; 

iBrigrbt shines the g-lorious Sun amidst the Heaven, 
When from its cheering' orb the clouds are driven, 
A charm more beauteous still adorn’d the flood, 
Tjwendolen’s fatal form, Llewelyn’s blood. 

For her, in arms opposed 
Contending warriors strove; 

Twas beauty fir’d their hearts, 

Gwendolen’s love. 

On Morva Rhuddlan’s plain the rivals stood, 

Till Morva Rhiiddlan’s plain was drench’d in blood r 
Not all proud Lloegyr’s* might could Cymru quell. 
Till foremost of his baud young Griffith fell. 

Gwendolen saw him fall ; 

.And “ oh !” the maiden eried, 

“ Could maiden tears avail 
Thou had’st not died !” 

Distracted, to the plain Gwendolen flew 
To bathe her hero’s wounds, her lust adieu ! 

Fast o’er her hero's wounds her tears she shed ■ 

But tears alas were vain — his life was fled. 

• England is still called Lloegyr by the Welsh, aud £u. 
glishnien, Saisen, the Welsh word for Saxons. 




Oh then for Griffith’s son. 

Ye maids of Cymru mourn. 

For well the virgin tear 
Becomes his urn : 

Nor you, ye youths ! forbid your tears to fiow 

For they can best redress, who feel for woe. 

Sweet sleeps the lovely maid, wept by the brave. 

For oh ! she died for him she could not save. 

On Bryn Glas, a mountain near Pillelh, a little 
south-west of Knighton, a l)loo(iy battle was fought 
in 1402, between Sir F.dmond Mortimer, and the last 
assertor of Welsh independence, the celebrated 
Ow'en Glendower,* in which the former was de- 
feated with the loss of 1 IbO men. This victory is 
thus narrated by Parry, in his life of Glyndwr. 

“ When those violent outrages on the part of 
Glyndwr were made known to the king, he once 
more resolved to make an endeavour to crush him. 
He, accordingly, planned some formidable arrange- 
ments for the occasion; but, before he could take 
the field, or collect his forces tog^ether, he received 
intelligence of an important victory, gained by 
Glyndwr over Sir Edmond Mortimer. The Welsh 
chieftian, after having committed the ravages to 
which allusion has just been made, directed his ope- 
letions against the domains of the Lords Marchers, 

Written Owain Glyndivr, iu Welsh. 



on the borders of Soutli Wales. Among these, the 
estates of the F.arl of March, tlien an infant in the 
custody of Henry, became, in particular, a prey to 
his predatory incursions. Sir hdinond IVIortimer, 
uncle to the young F/arl, and entrusted with the 
protection of his pioperty, oi)posed him, at the head 
of, a large body of his ncpiiew’s dependants, near 
Knigton, in Uadnorshire. The contest was ex- 
tremely obstiuaie and sanguinary; but fortune at 
length declared in favor of Glyndwr, who, in a 
persoral encounter with his adversary, dismounted 
him and took liim prisoner. In addition to the 
capture of Sir Edmond Mortimer, the loss of eleven 
hundred of his men, chiefly slain on the field of 
battle, was the result of a victory important at once 
to the interests and fame of Glyndwr.” 

“ The English historians," continues his biogra- 
pher, in a note to this part of his memoirs, have 
charged the Welsh, and paiticularly the Welsh 
women, with some undefined and nameless atrocities 
committed on the bodies of the English that were 
slain in this battle. Holiushed speaks of the 
“.shameful villanie used by the Welshwomen’ on 
this occasion as being such as “ eares should be 
ashamed to hearc and continent toongs to speake 
thereof.” And Shakespear has adopted the dis- 
graceful accusation in the following passage — 



■I ■ I ' - “ When all athwart there came 

A post from Wales, loaden with heavy news, 

Whose worst was that the noble Mortimer, 

Leading the men of Herefordshire to fight 
Against the irregular and wild Glendower, 

Was by the rude hands of that Welshman taken, 

A thousand of his people butchered. 

Upon whose dead corpses there was such misuse,. 

Suclj beastly, shameless, transformation, 

By those Welsh women done, as may not he. 

Without much shame, retold or spoken of.” 

Thomas de Walsingham, who wrote ahottl forty years 
after the event, is the first propagator of this odious 
narrative; but Mr, Pennant has shewn, from another 
old writer, that, whatever truth tliere may be in it, 
the disgrace must be ascribed to a certain follower 
of Glyndwr, and not to the chieftain himself,” 
Before we close this article and quit tlie county, 
tlie following correct remarks, by Mr. Malkin will 
not be unacceptable to the reader. “ The eastern part 
of Radnorshire, is, upon the whole, a fine ami 
beautiful country; but it has nothing uncommon 
in its landscapes, its buildings, ancient or modern, 
or any of those local objects, by wdiich in districts 
more decisively marked by art or nature, the spec- 
tator may trace the outline of character, w bile be 
surveys the geographical positi ui. 

The language of Radnorshire is almost universally 
English. In learning to converse with their Saxon 
neighbours, they have forgotten the use of their 
vernacular tongue. It is uncommon to meet with 
a peasant who understands Welsh, though it seems 



to have been generally spoken even in the eastern 
parts of this county so lately as the middle of the 
seventeenth century. The angle of the county beyond 
Rhayader to the north-west is however not to be 
excepted, where the few scattered people speak 
nothing else. But the features and character of 
this corner participate entirely in those of Cardigan- 
shire ; and when we recollect how near Otfa’s dyke 
approaches to this spot, Ave should perhaps rather 
wonder that the Welsh language has lost so little 
ground, and not been obliged to recede still further; 
Nay, in the south-east part of the county, about 
Clyrow, Paine’s Castle, and other places in that 
neighbourhood, even beyond OfFa’s dyke, the Welsh 
language is understood, and all are able to speak 
it, though they decidedly affect the English, About 
Presteign, no natives understand Welsh, but it is 
partially known to all or most in the, places five or 
six miles to the westward. It may indeed be sus- 
pected, that the people in the east of Radnorshire 
are not Welshmen, who by vicinity and intermar- 
riages have gradually changed their speech for one 
more fashionable, but that they arc the direct 
descendants of the English marchers, who with 
their rapacious followers, occupied the limits be- 
tween England and Wales, and were pouring in 
upon the natives of the Welsh shires, from Here- 
ford, Shropshire, and the English part, on every 
slight pretence of licentiousness, disaffection, or 
danger. By these means they might have driven 



the aboriginal Britons still further into the moun- 
tainous district, and have established thenisekes in 
their seats. 1 merely offer this as a supposition 
equally tenable with any other, to account for the 
discontinuance of the Welsh language in Radnor- 
shire. After all, the circumstances which occa- 
sioned it may be well known. Caradoc of 
Llancarvan assigns some which are highly probable. 
He says, that a great number of Saxons, as the. 
English have always been called by the Welsh, 
settled in Pow'ys on the Norman invasion . It seems 
they were unwilling to submit to the bastard king, 
as he was styled in Wales, or to live under the go- 
vernment of hi.s son the red king. Thus the Saxon, 
language became generally known and spoken in 
Powys ; and from this account of its first introduc- 
tion, the consequence of a more familiar intercourse 
between the two nations will naturally be derived.. 
To this source we may evidently trace the subse- 
quent predilection of the Pow'ysians for the English 
government and nation, with which it -appears from, 
history that they w'cre for the most part in alliance, 
and engaged against the princes of North and 
South Wales. 'I he ultimate subjugation of Wales 
was owing to the assistance frequently afforded to 
ihe English kings by the princes of Powys, of which 
Radnorshire was a part. Tire character of the 
people accords with that of tlie Welsh in general^, 
though their tongue differs, 'Phey speak 
with very few vtilgarisnis, and with very littla- 

271 ' 

Caer Caradoc, 

of provincial accent. They arc also retnark- 
bly figurative in their phrases and expressions. 
They grow a good deal of corn in the east, and ap* 
pear to live with full as much freedom and comfort 
as the people sf Brecknockshire, and with much 
more than those of Cardiganshire. Their cottages 
in general seem to be substantially weather-proof, 
though lliey have not the superior cleanliness and 
convenience of those in Glamorganshire. Sheep 
have already been mentioned as remarkably nume- 
rous in this county, aud they constitute the chief 
support of the industrious poor. There are no large 
manufactories established, but the people make a 
sufficient quantity of coarse cloth, flannel, and stock- 
ings, for their own use. The woods and hills are 
})Ipnti/ully slocked with game, and the county has 
been celebrated, almost two centuries ago, for its 
deer; though I believe there are fewer now in this 
than in any other part of Wales, where we are to 
understand, on the authority of Lcland, that wild 
deer then universally abounded.” 

For the agricultural capabilities, and all further 
information respecting this county, the reader is 
referred to Malkin’s South Wales, vol. 1. From 
hence we shall visit the upper part of the 
hundred of Builth, and after embracing Llanwrtyd 
Wells, return aud trace the course of the Wye 


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Air of Llandrindod, its extreme mildness . . 22 

Annual deaths at Llandrindod, three; two yean 
without a funeral . . . . . i . ib 

Antiquity, remains of 23 

Ancient lead mine, near Llandrindod Church . 28 

American War, Llandrindod declines on its breaking 

Assembly Room, a new, at Llandrindod ■ . . 51 

Armstrong’s lines on “Taste” • ... 67 

Alpine Scenery on the river Elain ... 71 

Abbey Cwm-hir, its history ■ ... 76 

Six arches removed thence toLlanid- 


Destroyed by Owain Glyndwr . 7fl 

Analysis of the Soils and and Rocks about Llandrindod 89 

SalLiie cerboiiated chalybeate, or rock 

"■ater .... 100 

Saline Pump water . . , 150 

Sulphureous Pump water . . 175 

Eye water ..... 196 

Atius, on natural baths, quoted- .... 137 

Agricola, on sulphur baths, quoted : . . ib 

Boarding and Lodging Houses at Llandrindod. . 49 

Beauty of Rhaiader Town. Hall denied aud quizzed . 62 

Builth and Rhaiader road along the banks of the Wye 79 

Builth, road from, to Llandrindod ... 85 

Bathing in the Saline water recommended . . 170 


Bathg of Sulphureous water, how made . . 19-2 

Bank, the Radnorshire, established at Pen-y-Bont . 200 

Burton Mr. one of the “wealthy worthless” . . 202 

Bedd-Ygre, extensive prospect from . . 205 

Planted and improved by Mr. Severn . ib 

Burton Arms Inn, at Llandegfley .... 202 

Blaenedwy Wells ...... 228 

Bryn Glas, the bloody battle of .... 266 

Camp at Cwm Radnor ..... 23 

Cern LIys, the British Fortess of ... 26 

Cock-pits aud Cock-fights at Llandrindod . . 35 

Cures, wonderful, at Llandrindod ... 38 

Celebrity of Llandrindod revived ... 49 

Crummer, Mrs. her mansion . . . . 54 

Coaches passing Llandrindod .... 57 

Cwm El_ain, a romantic vale .... 69 

Mr. Malkin’s excellent account of . 73 

Cadwallon ab Madoc, Founder of Abbey Cwra-hir 76 

Cistercian manks unfavorable to Owain Glyndwr . 79 

Clsrwen, the River . . . . . ' . 84 

“ Cottage on the Cambrian v/ild,” a sonnet . . ib 

Currie, Dr. quotation from ..... 169 

Castles of Cymarou, Cnuclas, Gwyrthrinion, Cwm- 

danddwr, Maelienydd, and Pilleth . 206 

Crychal 207 

Coal and Iron Stone, evidences of their existence at 

Llandrindod ....... 211 

Charles I. Sups and Sleeps at Old Radnor . . 237 

Caer Caradoc ....... 242 

Caractacus, his character, achievements and captivity, 243 

his celebrated address to Claudius . 255 

Druidical Stones, and various Tumuli about Llandrin 

dod *7 

Drui die Sepulture, Pennant’s remarks on . • >b 

Discovery of the Saline and Sulphureous Spas . 36 

Y Fynon Cwm-y-Gof *7 


bevanner Park and Manor House, very picturesque 

objects — History of .... 201 

Dancing' in Cburch-yards, a Badnorsliire practice 210 
Devil’s Garden, fine flowers there . . , 23^ 

Epsom Suits inferior to those of Seidlitz, and both to 

Llandrindod Salts ...... 12 

Eighteen Roman Camps . : . . . 25 

Establishment, Mr. Grosvenor’s, at Llandrindod . 34 

Elegant mansion, Mr. Grove’s in Cwm Elain . 7i 

Eulogy on parts of Radnorshire, by Mr. Malkin 73 ic 263 
Radnorshire people .... 219 

■.English language generally spoken in Radnorshire 268 

English Marchers, their rapacity . . 270 

Fish-ponds with Swans on them, at Llandrindod . 36 

Flintshire Militia, 500 Men with Wives and Children 

lodged at Llandrindod Hall .... 42 

Farm-Houses, lodgings at, about Llandrindod . 63 

Fynon Cwm-y-Gof 37 & 196 

Figurative phraseology of the Radnorshire people . 219 

GroSvenor, Mr. his grand establishment at Llandrin- 
dod ; ... 34 

Forms a race course — regular races . 36 

his fish-ponds and cock-pit : , ib 

his dancing and billiard rooms . ih 

erects shops for Glovers, Milliners, See . ib 

worthy of statue to his memory 
Grosvenor, Miss a belle, a beauty, and a toast . 208 

Her eccentricity, and masculine taste ib 

Her humourous and satiric song . 209 

Gaseous contents of the rock water , . . 112 

the Sulphureous Pump water 183 

Geneial Remarks on the Saline Pump water . 169 

Guer, an ancient fortification : . . . 204 

Gw rrllirinion Castle . . ... . . 206 

Gracefulneis of the Radnorshire females , . 219) 


Glaacwm village and church — silly legend of . 23S 

History of Llandrindod commenced ... 33 

Hysteric passion, Dr. Linden on . . . -. 41 

Howey, village of — Bridge-end Inn ... 54 

Rolinshed'is accusations against the welsh women . 267 

adopted by Shakspeare . ib 

Improvements projected at Llandrindod . . 50 

Inns at Rhaiader . T .... 63 

Itbon, the river ; — pocnliar scenery on . . b‘i 

Improvements at Pen-y-hontand its neighbourhood by 

Mr. Severn .... 200 

at Newtown . . : . 207 

Knighton, description of, &o. .... 241 

Llandrindod, superiority of its water ... 10 

Compared to Montpelier . . .22 

Hall, demolished hy order of its proprietor 
Linden, Dr. recommends Llandrindod Saits to be 

generally prescribed in London . 13 

Cured of an inveterate scurvy . . 3 

‘Witnesses wonderful cures there . 1b 

Dignified,picture of a Physician - 40 

bis tenderness towards the fair sex » 41 

his various publications - - 48 

his experiments on the rock water - 115 

his opinions on its medical properties - IIS 

Llechrhyd Castle 24 

Llanerch-y-dirion Inn, Llandrindod ... 51 

Llyn.Gwyn, a Radnorshire lake ... 67 

Llwyn-y-Baried — its plantations, and the beautiful 

scenery, from thence to Rhaiader ... 83 

Llandcwi Ystradeny church and village . . 202 

Llaubister village .<.... 206 

Idanbadern Vyuidd ...... 227 

Llandegley Wells . . . . ^ ^ 217 


Llaud<*grley Rocks of Spar - . - . 22i 

Church . _ . - . 223 

Llynhilyn, — a Radnorshire lake ... 231 

Llanvihang'el Nantmalan . » . . . 233 

Merthyr Waggoner, the - ... (JO 

Merthyr man’s amusement .... 62 

Bledical properties of the Rock water - . 116 

Saline Pump water - 168 

Sulphureous Pump water 186 
“ Morva Rhuddlan,” a Welsh Melody - - 264 

Mortimer, Sir Edmond, defeated by Owain Glyndwr 266 

Newtown, ImproTements there 
Newtown Hall . . . - 

New Radnor, description and history of 




Old Radnor, history of 

Offa’s dyke, account of . . . - 

depredating schemes ... 

pilgrimage to Rome— Founds the Abbey of Si 

cold-blooded cruelties ... 

Owuin Glyndwr’s victory at Bryn-Glass 

personal encounter with Mortimer 
' enmity to the Lord’s Marchers 









Pimlimmon, erroneously written Plymlimmon 

(preface note) . - • - 

Present accommodations at Llandrindod • 

Pencerrig House, fine sheet of water by 
Pen-y-bont, a genteel villnge . - - 

Price, John, Esq. account of— his Bank at Pen-y-Bont 
Poor Relatives an eye-sore to the wealthy - 
Padern, founder of Llanbadaru-vawr, account of 

Pont-y-craig, a picturesque alpine bridge 

Pain’s Castle 

Presteign, description and history of - ■* * 












Powysiq^ns, .their predilection for the English goyern- 

ment and nation ...... 269 , 

Roman Road over Llandrindod common . - ... 25 

jKeminis.cences of Llandrindod Hal! - - ' - 43 

Rides, drives, and walks about Llandrindod . . 55 

Rhaiader described — abandoned by the judges — the 

cause . - ' . - 59 

Castle, history of - . - - 55 

Road between Biiilth and Llandrindod - .85 

Rock Water, analysed by R. Williams, of Aberystwitb 100 
its resemblance to a spring near. Leipsic ib 
medical properties .... 116 

a powerful tonic .... 127 

instructions for drinking it 132, 13G, 139, 146 
Rides and Drives to the N. and N. E. of Llandrindod 198 
Radnorshire eulogised . . . : . 268 

Silver thumb ring, a, supposed signet of a Welsh 

Prince, discovered ...... 28 

Suggestions by Dr. Linden, for rendering Welsh lead 
malleable ..... ..46 

Springs discovered in the Rock House yard - 54 

Sir Humfrey Davy’s opinion of the cause of unproduc- 
tiveness of certain soils . . - - . 98 

Saunders, Dr. his opinions quoted 126, 130, 163, 165, 166 188 
Sulphureous Pump water analizod by R. Williams . 175 

resemblance to the Harrow- 
gate and Moffat Springs - 189 

directions for taking it - 190 

Seats at’Pen-y-Bont, — Middleton Jones, Esq. 198 

J. C. Severn, Esq. . - 199 

Severn, J. C. Esq., his improvements - - 200 

Severn Arms Inn, Pen-y-Bont - - - - 199 

Stanner Rocks, 6ne prospect from ... 237 

.Tqpography, Air and Soil of Llandrindod . . 17 

Thumb ring, silver, dug np at Llandrindod . 28 

Treatise on Llandrindod waters, by Dr. Linden . 39 

by U. Williams . 43 


Towns without criminals in Wales, a proof of barbarity 80 

Troublesome Wife, a mode of disposing of a - 62 

Verses on Llandrindod - . . . 11 & 15 

Visit of Dr. Linden to Llandrindod - - - 37 

R. Williams - - . . , 43 

Van and Coaches passing Llandrindod . . 57 

Wales, its attributed resemblance to Switzerland, the 

patriotism of its natires - . . . j|, 

Wellficld House, omitted by Mr. Malkin - - 81 

Worthies of Wales, a work to be so called announced 

and quoted from - - . r . . 203 

Water break its neck, the cataract of - . . 223 

Welsh Villages with more consonants than houses - 223 




or THE 


It ii intended that the future numbers of this work shal 
embrace various brief articles of entertainment, allied toi 
the history and literature of the principality ; — original 
criticism and poetry — unique selections from the best Welsh 
tourists — and occasional extracts from the ancient bards, 
with translations j — so as to combine with the main object of 
the work, the variety of a literary miscellany, or Mngtizine 
of a very original and nouvelle kind. 

The next part, or first four numbers, will treat of the 
Wells of Llanwrtyd, Tyr yr Abad, Llanlleonvel, Parc ar 
Irvon, Llanercbgoedlan, Fyiion Owrlodnu, Llnngenny Well, 
Tafia’s Well, &c. &c. In course of which will also be given 
several select biographical notices, including those of the 
Rev. Rhys Prichard, author of C anwyll y Cymry, or the 
“ Welshman’s Candle Rev, Theophilus Evans, author of 
Drych y priv oesoedd, or the **Mirror of Ancient times 
Llewelyn ab Griffith, the last native Prince of Wales ; and 
of the notorious Twm Sion Catti ; a description of 
his Cave ; with a detail of his knavish exploits, partly 
translated from the Welsh and now first collected, and an 
exposure of the absurd and incorrect account of him in 
the Innkeefbr's Axbdh; 

Every four numbers will constitute a Part, and be in 
itself complete, with an Index: 






THE W E r, L S 









To the Valley of Cwro Elain. 
Lake of Llyn-^wyn. 
Banks of the Wye. 
Banks of the Ithon. 
Llandegley Spar Rocks 

To Water-break-its-neck. 
Lake of Llynhilyn, 
OfFa’s Dyke. 

Caer Caradoc. 
Staiiner Rocks. 

The Devil’s Flower Garden, &c. &c. 


“ The air of Llandrindod is so li^althy as to suit the most 
delicate constitution : the most weakly and consumptive 
revive and become streng-thened in it : in short, it is such 
an air ns is required for tiie sickly and declining’ ; and 
Llandrindod may justly be deemed the Montpelier of 

Great Britain.” Da. Linden. 

“ As a further proof of the salubrity of the air, it 
may be stated that in thirteen years, two passed without a 
single funeral : and during that period the average number 
of annual deaths did not amoiint-to three.” 

Richard Wiluams. 

E. Nicholas, Printer, Nfwport, 

• % X 'I'* 


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In the Table of Distances from Llandrindod, giren 
in page 18, the following corrections are necessary. 


Hereford by Kington 41 
Worcester, thro’ Leomin- 
ster 60 


18 Llandrindod, by New- 
bridge 16 

Knighton 10 

Brecon 24 


Page iii. 

line i. for 

descried read 
























ex omitted. 









The few rerbal errors uncorrected, are left to the 
liberality of the reader. 

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